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Kizekova M.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Tomaskin J.,Matej Bel University | Cunderlik J.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Jancova L'.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Martincova J.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica
Agriculture | Year: 2013

This study highlights the effect of drought and ambient temperature on performance and herbage quality of legume monocultures and grass-legume mixtures. In a field experiment, the total dry matter yield, seasonal pattern of dry matter yield distribution, content of crude protein and crude fibre of monocultures of red clover and alfalfa and grass-legume mixtures were investigated during two consecutive dry years (2011-2012). Alfalfa cultivars Kamila and Tereza grown as monocultures or as mixtures with Festulolium braunii (cultivar Achilles) outperformed the red clover cultivars Fresko and Veles and provided a well-balanced total and seasonal dry matter yield during both years. Across all experimental years, crude protein content was significantly higher at alfalfa monocultures and mixture when compared with clover monocultures (P < 0.05). However, considerable lower content of crude fibre at clover monocultures in comparison with alfalfa ones was found. Responses of nutritive parameters of both legume species to weather variables were different. Crude protein content in red clover was independent of rainfall and temperature. In contrast, the crude fibre content correlated with temperature whereby the alfalfa monocultures showed stronger correlations (P < 0.05) than red clover monocultures.


Kovacikova Z.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Vargova V.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Jancova L.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica
Agriculture | Year: 2013

Possibilities were studied for using digested substrate as fertiliser applied to grassland. Over 2008-2009, a research trial consisting of four treatments in four replicates (the non-fertilised control; sward fertilized with digested substrates from 100% slurry; 80% slurry and 20% phytomass; 60% slurry and 40% phytomass) was performed on seminatural grassland at Radvaň site. In the sward utilised by three cuts a year, these parameters were studied: botanical composition, dominant species, herbage production, organic matter and mineral substances. At the fertilized treatments, the proportion of grasses was higher in 2009 than in 2008, but that of legumes and other herbs decreased. Dominant grasses were Poa pratensis L., Festuca rubra L., Lolium perenne L., Trisetum flavescens L. while Trifolium repens L. and Medicago falcata L. dominated among legume species. The application of digested substrate as fertiliser showed positive effects on herbage production, the highest increase was found at Treatment 4 where the digested substrate consisting of 60% slurry and 40% phytomass was applied. The highest amounts of crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were recorded at the treatment with the digested substrate composed of 80% slurry and 20% phytomass applied.


Jendrisakova S.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Kovacikova Z.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Vargova V.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica | Michalec M.,Grassland and Mountain Agriculture Research Institute Banska Bystrica
Journal of Water and Land Development | Year: 2011

The Vel'ká Fatra National Park (declared on 1 April 2002) is extending on an area of 40,371 ha and was established to protect well-preserved ecosystems. The Vel'ká Fatra (Greater Fatra) with the highest peak Ostredok (1592 m altitude) is a typical mountain territory and ranks among the highest mountain ranges in Slovakia. Grassland areas above the forest line ("hole" in Slovak) and highland relief are typical for Vel'ká Fatra where forests cover is 85% of the area. Large areas of grassland located on gently modelled ridges resulted from deforestation many centuries ago. The alpine meadows which are rich in rare plant communities cover the area of 2000 ha. In the past, these grasslands were used by cutting and grazing. Nowadays, the meadows are not mowed at all. The reasons are low numbers of ruminants in nearby farms, high cost and poor access roads that are eroded very much. Grazing with young cattle has been banned and consequently tall grasses expanded, swards thinned as well as avalanche risk increased. Currently, it is allowed to graze young cattle again, but farmers do not exploit this option very much. About 200 heifers and 2,500 sheep graze there, but only at the lowest areas of the mountains and for short periods of time. The grassland is dominated by Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) P. Beauv. and also by very rapidly expanding Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth, Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. indicating a prolonged period of abandonment.

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