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Chiu C.-H.,Hungkuang University | Peng C.-C.,Taipei Medical University | Ker Y.-B.,Hungkuang University | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | And 4 more authors.

Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) is a unique fungus found inhabiting the rotten wood of Cinnamomum kanehirai. A submerged liquid culture of AC has been developed and its bioproducts have been used to meet the market demand for natural fruiting bodies. AC exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Previously, we isolated polysaccharide AC-2 from AC mycelia by means of alkali extraction with subsequent acid precipitation and found it had a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, a novel polysaccharide named "antrodan" was obtained by further purification of AC-2 using Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Antrodan exhibited a molecular weight of 442 kD and contained a particularly high content of uronic acid (152.6 ± 0.8 mg/g). The protein content was 71.0%, apparently, higher than the carbohydrate content (14.1%), and thus antrodan was characterized as a glycoprotein. Its total glucan content was 15.65%, in which β-glucan (14.20%) was prominently higher than a-glucan (1.45%). Its FTIR confirmed the presence of β-linkages between sugars, and intramolecular amide bonds between sugars and amino acids. Its 1H-NMR spectrum showed that antrodan was a complex union of a- and β-glucans, which had (1-4)-linked a-Glcp and (1-3)-linked β-Glcp linkages to the carbohydrate chains via asparagine linked to protein site. Biologically, antrodan was confirmed to be totally non-detrimental to RAW 264.7 cell line even at dose as high as 400 μg/mL. It showed potent suppressing effect on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cell line. Moreover, antrodan significantly reduced the nitrogen oxide production at doses as low as 18.75 μg/mL.© 2014 by the authors licensee MDPI Basel Switzerland. Source

Lu C.-C.,Chang Gung University | Huang W.-S.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Huang W.-S.,Chang Gung University | Lee K.-F.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods

Hericium erinaceus is a well-known edible mushroom with valuable biological properties. Erinacine A is the major active agent of the diterpenoid compounds of the cultured mycelia of H. erinaceus. This agent has multiple physiological activities, including anti-tumourigenic activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which erinacine A mediated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and we performed cell cycle arrest to clarify molecular changes in colorectal cancer cells (CRC). Treatment of DLD-cells with erinacine A resulted in the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p70S6K, the activation of p50 and p-IKB-β protein levels, the downregulation of cell-cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cdk2, cyclin E, cdk4, and cyclin D1), and the induction of p21. Furthermore, treatment with the N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) abolished erinacine A-induced cell cycle G1 arrest and reversed the association of CDK2 with Cyclin E and CDK4 with Cyclin D1. Therefore, when DLD-cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, treatment with erinacine A induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumour growth. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that erinacine A treatment significantly reduced the number of mitotic cells. These results suggest that erinacine A presents an antitumour potential for CRC by inhibiting the growth of tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we have identified a novel erinacine A-inhibited proliferation by activating p70S6K and ROS production, cell-cycle-related p21 proteins that provide a new mechanism for erinacine A-inhibited cell growth in human CRC. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li I.-C.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | Chen Y.-L.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | Lee L.-Y.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | Chen W.-P.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology

Natural products have attained great importance as they are believed to be the new alternative medicines for conventional therapy. As numerous studies have proved the tremendous medicinal values of Hericium erinaceus, it is necessary to take into account its safety as well as its risk for the recipient. However, mushroom mycelium has an identity distinct from mushrooms, as two specific classes of compounds, hericenones and erinacines, can only be extracted from both the fruit body and the cultured mycelium, respectively. Therefore, this is the first report on the evaluation of the toxicity of H erinaceus mycelium, enriched with 5. mg/g erinacine A, by a 28-day repeated oral administration study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three doses of 1 (Low), 2 (Mid) and 3 (High) g/kg body weight/day were selected for the study while distilled water served as control. All animals survived to the end of the study. No abnormal changes were observed in clinical signs. No adverse or test article-related differences were found in urinalysis, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters, between the treatment and control groups. No gross pathological findings and histopathological differences were seen. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of erinacine A-enriched H. erinaceus is greater than 3. g/kg. body weight/day. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li I.-C.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | Chen Y.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen W.-P.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | Lee L.-Y.,Grape King Biotechnology Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology Reports

Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of gastric disorders. Recently, it has become a well-established candidate in causing positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing nerve growth factor (NGF) from its bioactive ingredient, erinacine A. This active compound, which exists only in fermented mycelium but not in its fruiting body, increases NGF levels in astroglial cells in vitro as well as catecholamine and NGF levels in vivo. With increasing recognition of erinacine A in H. erinaceus (EAHE) mycelium improving neurodegenerative diseases, numerous products are being marketed based on these functional claims. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on the mutagenicity of EAHE prior to this paper. Hence, the present study was undertaken to determine the mutagenicity and genotoxicity effects of EAHE mycelium conducted in three standard battery of tests (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests) according to the latest guidelines in order to meet all international regulatory requirements and provide information on the safety of this new and promising natural remedy. Our results have indicated that EAHE mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies in the bacterial reverse mutation test nor induce higher frequency of aberrations in the chromosome aberration test. Moreover, no statistically significant EAHE mycelium-related increase was observed in the incidence of reticulocytes per 1000 red blood cells and micronucleated reticulocytes per 1000 reticulocytes. In conclusion, the three standard battery of tests suggested that EAHE mycelium was devoid of mutagenicity and genotoxicity in the tested doses and experimental conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lee K.-F.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Chen J.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Chen J.-H.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Teng C.-C.,Chang Gung University | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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