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Taoyuan City, Taiwan

Watanabe Y.,China Medical University at Heping | Lin T.-W.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Sheu S.-J.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science | Year: 2015

Antrodia cinnamomea (Syn. Antrodia camphorata and Taiwanofungus camphorata), an endemic fungus in Taiwan, is considered an ideal liver protectant. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of freeze-dried powder of A. cinnamomea mycelia from submerged fermentation on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Groups of male rats were treated with TAA administrated intraperitoneally at doses of 100-200 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks and simultaneously were given a daily oral dose of 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose and A. cinnamomea mycelium (131, 393 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that A. cinnamomea mycelia significantly reduced the TAA-induced serum levels of ALT and AST at week 1, 3, 6 and 8. In addition, A. cinnamomea mycelia increased the TAA-reduced albumin levels, lowered the TAA-induced γ-GT activities, decreased the TAA-induced spleen weight and liver collagen contents, augmented the TAA-deduced liver protein productions, raised the glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity and lessened lipid peroxidation. In the liver pathological examination, A. cinnamomea mycelia can inhibit liver nodules and bile duct fibrosis production. RT-PCR analysis showed that A. cinnamomea mycelia treatment decreased the expression of genes encoding methione adenosyltransferase 2A, collagen (al)(I), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1, CD 14 and TNF-a. Furthermore, A. cinnamomea mycelia can reduce the biomarkers for preneoplastic liver, such as y-glutamyltranspeptidase activities and expression of genes encoding glutathione transferase (GST)-M, and GST-P. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that A. cinnamomea mycelia retard the progression of liver fibrosis and preneoplastic liver in TAA-treated rats. It may be expected that A. cinnamomea mycelia has potential to prevent liver fibrosis and hepatoma.

Wu S.-Y.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Li I.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Lin Y.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

As previous studies mainly focus on understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance in Deinococcus bacteria, the present study aimed at characterizing and verifying the safety use of the GKB-Aid 1995 strain, a member of the radiation-resistant bacterial genus Deinococcus, as an ingredient in feed supplements. Using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GKB-Aid 1995 most resembles Deinococcus grandis. The Ames test, in vitro chromosomal test, in vivo micronucleus test and acute toxicity test were performed subsequently for its safety evaluation. As there is a possibility that the pigment of GKB-Aid 1995 can pass from feed to eggs intended for human consumption, an acute toxicity test was also carried out in pigmented egg yolk. The results confirmed that GKB-Aid 1995 was non-genotoxic in three genotoxicity experiments, and the LD50 of GKB-Aid 1995 and the pigmented egg yolk in ICR mice was greater than 10 and 12 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. Overall, these data indicate that GKB-Aid 1995 is a non-toxic substance with no genotoxicity and is therefore safe to be used as a feed supplement or feed additive. This study suggests there is potential in developing GKB-Aid 1995 as an animal feed additive intended to enhance yolk coloration to meet the demand of consumers. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Hsu J.-H.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Li I.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Jiang Y.-M.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: Considering the interest in L. nuda as a source of ingredients for the development of functional food and nutraceuticals has increased, the objective of this study was to evaluate its general toxicity and possible genotoxic effects in rats to assess its safety. Methods: This study evaluated the safety of L. nuda mycelium by using genotoxicity assays (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests) and a short-term toxicity test. Results: Our results have indicated that L. nuda mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies and chromosomal aberration in both in vitro assays. Furthermore, it did not induce any increase in micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow. Conclusion: In summary, no mutagenic effects and no evidence of systemic toxicity were found in this safety assessment, and the use of L. nuda mycelia is safe at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight in S-D rats. Using a safety factor of 100, the calculated acceptable daily intake in humans is 30 mg/kg body weight/d. © 2015 International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All Rights Reserved.

Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Chen C.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chen C.-C.,Shih Chien University | Li I.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2016

Introduction: Evidence indicates that, in animal models, Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) mycelium is in vitro hypotensively active. Convincing evidence of the clinically relevant benefits of AC mycelium in humans, however, is unclear. Hence, this pilot randomised clinical trial was conducted to assess the effects of AC mycelium on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild hypertension. Methods: Forty-one patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 130 and 179. mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 85 and 109. mmHg were randomised then treated with either AC mycelium or starch (placebo) for 8 weeks and were followed up for an additional 2 weeks. Results: SBP in the patients treated with AC mycelium was significantly lower (144.86. ±. 11.34 to 133.10. ±. 10.90. mmHg; p. <. 0.05) than in patients treated with the placebo. DBP was also significantly (p. <. 0.05) lower (it fell from 96.19. ±. 7.42 to 91.38. ±. 7.56. mmHg) after 8 weeks of AC mycelium treatment. There were no significant changes in anthropometric, lipid profile, or biochemical parameters between the placebo- and AC mycelium-treated groups, except for reduced plasma renin activity after AC mycelium treatment. Conclusions: There were neither adverse events nor abnormal laboratory findings throughout the study period, which suggested that AC mycelium significantly reduced mild hypertension; this might support the hypothesis that it is a safe alternative treatment for mild hypertension. Trial registration: Chung Shan Medical University Hospital Internal Review Board approval number: CS11043; ClinicalTrial.gov registration number: NCT02532699. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH.

Chen C.-C.,Hungkuang University | Kuo Y.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Kuo Y.-H.,Asia University, Taiwan | Cheng J.-J.,National Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

Three new sesquiterpene aryl esters and eight known compounds were isolated from the EtOH extract of the mycelium of Armillaria mellea. The structures of new compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Some of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cell lines, including MCF-7, H460, HT-29, and CEM. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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