Grape King Bio Ltd.

Fengyuan, Taiwan

Grape King Bio Ltd.

Fengyuan, Taiwan
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Jhou B.-Y.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Liu H.-H.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Yeh S.-H.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2017

Ethnopharmacological relevance Lignosus rhinocerotis (L. rhinocerotis), also known as the tiger milk mushroom, is widely used as traditional medicine and as soup ingredient in Malaysia and Hong Kong. It is edible and is used traditionally for the treatment of fever, cough, asthma, wounds, chronic hepatitis, gastric ulcers and cancers. In view of its safety profile, little information is found in scientific literature. The objective of this study is to investigate developmental toxicity of L. rhinocerotis in pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Materials and methods Eighty pregnant SD female rats were used in this study for three treatment groups and a control group, each consisting of 20 pregnant female rats. Three doses of 850 mg/kg/day (Low-dose), 1700 mg/kg/day (Mid-dose) and 3400 mg/kg/day (High-dose) were selected for the study, whereas 10 mL/kg distilled water was served as the control. Examinations were conducted on pregnant rats and fetuses respects to mortality, body weight, body weights gains, food consumption and clinical observations. The pregnant females were gross necropsied on G20, followed by maternal and fetus examination, to evaluate the teratogenicity, reproductive and developmental performance of L. rhinocerotis mycelium. Results Results showed that no L. rhinocerotis mycelium-related animal death and abnormal clinical sign were noted. No statistical differences were noted in maternal mean body weight and maternal mean body weight gains. Some animals in the high-dose group appeared audible respiration due to dosing accident, it resulted in lower food consumption but not relevant to L. rhinocerotis mycelium treatment. In maternal gross necropsy, no L. rhinocerotis mycelium-related gross lesion was noted. In maternal examination, parameters of gravid uterus weight, implantation number, corpora lutea number, litter size, live or dead fetal number, male or female fetus number, resorption number, fetal sex ratio (M/F), pre-implantation loss and post-implantation loss were all within the normal reference ranges and showed no significant difference when compared to the control group. In fetus examination, including external, visceral and skeletal evaluations, there were no significant changes between any of the L. rhinocerotis mycelium treated groups and the control group. Conclusions Based on the study results, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for pregnant female rats under the conditions of this study was 3400 mg/kg/day. © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd


Tsai-Teng T.,National Yang Ming University | Chin-Chu C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Li-Ya L.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Wan-Ping C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2016

Background: The fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus has been demonstrated to possess anti-dementia activity in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and people with mild cognitive impairment. However, the therapeutic potential of Hericium erinaceus mycelia on Alzheimer's disease remains unclear. In this study, the effects of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus mycelia (HE-My) on the pathological changes in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease are studied. Results: After a 30 day oral administration to 5 month-old female APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice, we found that HE-My and its ethanol extracts (HE-Et) attenuated cerebral Aβ plaque burden. It's worth noting that the attenuated portion of a plaque is the non-compact structure. The level of insulin-degrading enzyme was elevated by both HE-My and HE-Et in cerebral cortex. On the other hand, the number of plaque-activated microglia and astrocytes in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were diminished, the ratio of nerve growth factor (NGF) to NGF precursor (proNGF) was increased and hippocampal neurogenesis was promoted after these administrations. All the mentioned benefits of these administrations may therefore improve the declined activity of daily living skill in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Conclusions: These results highlight the therapeutic potential of HE-My and HE-Et on Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the effective components of HE-My and HE-Et are worth to be developed to become a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Author(s).


Chen C.-C.,Hungkuang University | Kuo Y.-H.,China Medical University at Taichung | Kuo Y.-H.,Asia University, Taiwan | Cheng J.-J.,National Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2015

Three new sesquiterpene aryl esters and eight known compounds were isolated from the EtOH extract of the mycelium of Armillaria mellea. The structures of new compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Some of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cell lines, including MCF-7, H460, HT-29, and CEM. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Watanabe Y.,China Medical University at Heping | Lin T.-W.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Sheu S.-J.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science | Year: 2015

Antrodia cinnamomea (Syn. Antrodia camphorata and Taiwanofungus camphorata), an endemic fungus in Taiwan, is considered an ideal liver protectant. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of freeze-dried powder of A. cinnamomea mycelia from submerged fermentation on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Groups of male rats were treated with TAA administrated intraperitoneally at doses of 100-200 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks and simultaneously were given a daily oral dose of 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose and A. cinnamomea mycelium (131, 393 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that A. cinnamomea mycelia significantly reduced the TAA-induced serum levels of ALT and AST at week 1, 3, 6 and 8. In addition, A. cinnamomea mycelia increased the TAA-reduced albumin levels, lowered the TAA-induced γ-GT activities, decreased the TAA-induced spleen weight and liver collagen contents, augmented the TAA-deduced liver protein productions, raised the glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity and lessened lipid peroxidation. In the liver pathological examination, A. cinnamomea mycelia can inhibit liver nodules and bile duct fibrosis production. RT-PCR analysis showed that A. cinnamomea mycelia treatment decreased the expression of genes encoding methione adenosyltransferase 2A, collagen (al)(I), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1, CD 14 and TNF-a. Furthermore, A. cinnamomea mycelia can reduce the biomarkers for preneoplastic liver, such as y-glutamyltranspeptidase activities and expression of genes encoding glutathione transferase (GST)-M, and GST-P. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that A. cinnamomea mycelia retard the progression of liver fibrosis and preneoplastic liver in TAA-treated rats. It may be expected that A. cinnamomea mycelia has potential to prevent liver fibrosis and hepatoma.


Wu S.-Y.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Li I.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Lin Y.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | And 3 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2016

As previous studies mainly focus on understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance in Deinococcus bacteria, the present study aimed at characterizing and verifying the safety use of the GKB-Aid 1995 strain, a member of the radiation-resistant bacterial genus Deinococcus, as an ingredient in feed supplements. Using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GKB-Aid 1995 most resembles Deinococcus grandis. The Ames test, in vitro chromosomal test, in vivo micronucleus test and acute toxicity test were performed subsequently for its safety evaluation. As there is a possibility that the pigment of GKB-Aid 1995 can pass from feed to eggs intended for human consumption, an acute toxicity test was also carried out in pigmented egg yolk. The results confirmed that GKB-Aid 1995 was non-genotoxic in three genotoxicity experiments, and the LD50 of GKB-Aid 1995 and the pigmented egg yolk in ICR mice was greater than 10 and 12 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. Overall, these data indicate that GKB-Aid 1995 is a non-toxic substance with no genotoxicity and is therefore safe to be used as a feed supplement or feed additive. This study suggests there is potential in developing GKB-Aid 1995 as an animal feed additive intended to enhance yolk coloration to meet the demand of consumers. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Hsu J.-H.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Li I.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Jiang Y.-M.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Objective: Considering the interest in L. nuda as a source of ingredients for the development of functional food and nutraceuticals has increased, the objective of this study was to evaluate its general toxicity and possible genotoxic effects in rats to assess its safety. Methods: This study evaluated the safety of L. nuda mycelium by using genotoxicity assays (reverse mutation, chromosomal aberration, and micronuclei tests) and a short-term toxicity test. Results: Our results have indicated that L. nuda mycelium did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies and chromosomal aberration in both in vitro assays. Furthermore, it did not induce any increase in micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow. Conclusion: In summary, no mutagenic effects and no evidence of systemic toxicity were found in this safety assessment, and the use of L. nuda mycelia is safe at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight in S-D rats. Using a safety factor of 100, the calculated acceptable daily intake in humans is 30 mg/kg body weight/d. © 2015 International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. All Rights Reserved.


A method of preparing Cordyceps cicadae mycelium active substances for preventing and/or treating xerophthalmia is provided. The method comprises: (a)culturing a Cordyceps cicadae mycelium in a plate media at 15 to 35 C. for 5 to 14 days; (b)inoculating the mycelium of step(a) to a flask containing liquid media and culturing it at 15 to 35 C. with a pH of 2 to 8 for 3 days; (c)inoculating the mycelium of step(b) to a fermenter tank and culturing it at 15 to 35 C. with a pH of 2 to 8 for 3 days, so as to obtain a Cordyceps cicadae mycelium fermentation liquid; (d)freeze-drying and grating the fermentation liquid, so as to obtain a Cordyceps cicadae mycelium powder; (e)extracting the powder with solvent, so as to obtain a Cordyceps cicadae mycelium extract; and (f)drying the extract, so as to obtained the Cordyceps cicadae mycelium active substances.


Chen C.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | Chen C.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Chen C.-C.,Shih Chien University | Li I.-C.,Grape King Bio Ltd | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2016

Introduction: Evidence indicates that, in animal models, Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) mycelium is in vitro hypotensively active. Convincing evidence of the clinically relevant benefits of AC mycelium in humans, however, is unclear. Hence, this pilot randomised clinical trial was conducted to assess the effects of AC mycelium on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with mild hypertension. Methods: Forty-one patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 130 and 179. mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 85 and 109. mmHg were randomised then treated with either AC mycelium or starch (placebo) for 8 weeks and were followed up for an additional 2 weeks. Results: SBP in the patients treated with AC mycelium was significantly lower (144.86. ±. 11.34 to 133.10. ±. 10.90. mmHg; p. <. 0.05) than in patients treated with the placebo. DBP was also significantly (p. <. 0.05) lower (it fell from 96.19. ±. 7.42 to 91.38. ±. 7.56. mmHg) after 8 weeks of AC mycelium treatment. There were no significant changes in anthropometric, lipid profile, or biochemical parameters between the placebo- and AC mycelium-treated groups, except for reduced plasma renin activity after AC mycelium treatment. Conclusions: There were neither adverse events nor abnormal laboratory findings throughout the study period, which suggested that AC mycelium significantly reduced mild hypertension; this might support the hypothesis that it is a safe alternative treatment for mild hypertension. Trial registration: Chung Shan Medical University Hospital Internal Review Board approval number: CS11043; ClinicalTrial.gov registration number: NCT02532699. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, Grape King Bio Ltd. and National Yang Ming University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural products | Year: 2016

A new sesterterpene, erinacine S, and one cyathane diterpene xyloside, erinacine A, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the mycelia of Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and X-ray analysis. A 30-day oral course of erinacines A and S attenuated A plaque burden in the brains of 5-month-old female APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, erinacines A and S significantly increased the level of insulin-degrading enzyme in cerebral cortex.


PubMed | National Taiwan University of Science and Technology and Grape King Bio Ltd
Type: | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2016

As previous studies mainly focus on understanding the mechanisms of radioresistance in Deinococcus bacteria, the present study aimed at characterizing and verifying the safety use of the GKB-Aid 1995 strain, a member of the radiation-resistant bacterial genus Deinococcus, as an ingredient in feed supplements. Using Vitek 2 system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, GKB-Aid 1995 most resembles Deinococcus grandis. The Ames test, invitro chromosomal test, invivo micronucleus test and acute toxicity test were performed subsequently for its safety evaluation. As there is a possibility that the pigment of GKB-Aid 1995 can pass from feed to eggs intended for human consumption, an acute toxicity test was also carried out in pigmented egg yolk. The results confirmed that GKB-Aid 1995 was non-genotoxic in three genotoxicity experiments, and the LD50 of GKB-Aid 1995 and the pigmented egg yolk in ICR mice was greater than 10 and 12gkg(-1) body weight, respectively. Overall, these data indicate that GKB-Aid 1995 is a non-toxic substance with no genotoxicity and is therefore safe to be used as a feed supplement or feed additive. This study suggests there is potential in developing GKB-Aid 1995 as an animal feed additive intended to enhance yolk coloration to meet the demand of consumers.

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