Grant Government Medical College

Mumbai, India

Grant Government Medical College

Mumbai, India
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Lanjewar D.N.,Grant Government Medical College | Bhatia V.O.,Grant Government Medical College | Lanjewar S.D.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2016

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India has now been prevalent over three decades, and an increasing number of children are being affected with HIV. The spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in India has not been well described. Materials and Methods: A review of systematically conducted autopsies of 11 (10 boys and 1 girl) children with AIDS is presented. Results: The mode of HIV transmission in 6 children was vertical; in one it was blood transfusion and in 4 children route was presumably vertical as these were children of orphanage. The clinical manifestations were failure to thrive; 9 children, persistent gastroenteritis; 8, recurrent fever; 5, bacterial infections; 5, hepatosplenomegaly; 5, candidiasis; 1, scabies; 1, skin rash; 2, tuberculous (TB) meningitis; 1 and paraplegia; in 1 child. The spectrum of pathologic lesions observed were precocious involution in thymus in 3 and dysinvolution in 2 cases. Infectious diseases comprised of TB; 4 cases, cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) 4; bacterial pneumonia and meningitis; 7, and esophageal candidiasis in 2 cases. Dual or multiple infections were observed in 9 (82%) cases; these comprised of two lesions in 2, three lesions in 2, four lesions in 4, and five lesions in 1 case. TB, bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and CMV infection are the most frequent causes of death in children with AIDS. Vascular lesions showing features of arteriopathy were observed in 5 cases and brain in one case showed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusions: This study provides a better insight into the spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with AIDS in India. TB and CMV infection has been found to be the most prevalent infection in our children. © 2016 Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.


PubMed | Grant Government Medical College and SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pathology & microbiology | Year: 2016

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India has now been prevalent over three decades, and an increasing number of children are being affected with HIV. The spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in India has not been well described.A review of systematically conducted autopsies of 11 (10 boys and 1 girl) children with AIDS is presented.The mode of HIV transmission in 6 children was vertical; in one it was blood transfusion and in 4 children route was presumably vertical as these were children of orphanage. The clinical manifestations were failure to thrive; 9 children, persistent gastroenteritis; 8, recurrent fever; 5, bacterial infections; 5, hepatosplenomegaly; 5, candidiasis; 1, scabies; 1, skin rash; 2, tuberculous (TB) meningitis; 1 and paraplegia; in 1 child. The spectrum of pathologic lesions observed were precocious involution in thymus in 3 and dysinvolution in 2 cases. Infectious diseases comprised of TB; 4 cases, cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) 4; bacterial pneumonia and meningitis; 7, and esophageal candidiasis in 2 cases. Dual or multiple infections were observed in 9 (82%) cases; these comprised of two lesions in 2, three lesions in 2, four lesions in 4, and five lesions in 1 case. TB, bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and CMV infection are the most frequent causes of death in children with AIDS. Vascular lesions showing features of arteriopathy were observed in 5 cases and brain in one case showed non-Hodgkins lymphoma.This study provides a better insight into the spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with AIDS in India. TB and CMV infection has been found to be the most prevalent infection in our children.


Waghmare P.B.,Grant Government Medical College | Chikhalkar B.G.,Grant Government Medical College | Nanandkar S.D.,Grant Government Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2014

Violent deaths resulting from asphyxia chiefly includes Hanging. Medico-legal questions likely to arise in case of hanging are mainly, whether the death was caused by hanging was suicidal, homicidal or accidental. Simulated suicidal hanging interferes the investigating process in unnatural deaths. To arrive at conclusion, detailed external examination, internal examination and analysis of samples, plays vital role. Apart from autopsy the ligature material used, place, point of suspension and review of scene of crime may add to the conclusion. Mumbai city it is considered as city of glamour&heart of state and cosmopolitan population. Always with some stress, suicide by hanging is noted in productive age group of youngsters. Present study is conducted at Government Medical College, Mumbai. All cases of alleged history of hanging brought for autopsy examination were studied. After detailed external and internal examination preserved necessary samples. The medico-legal examination records and inquest papers are analyzed. The observations and analysis of the study is presented here.


Uplap P.A.,Grant Government Medical College | Bhate K.,Seth Gs Medical College
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: In India, ragpickers form the base of hierarchy of informal sector of the solid waste management. Assessment of general and gender specific health of women is conducted in this study in view of dearth of published evidence.Materials and Methods: An interventional study was conducted from October 2003 to April 2005 in Mumbai, at the field office of a nongovernmental organization working for women ragpickers. By the systematic random sampling 168 women ragpickers were selected. Both general and gender-specific health needs of this socially and occupationally marginalized group, including health seeking behavior were explored in this study. Fourteen participants were trained as health volunteers to create awareness in the local community. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11.0 software program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).Results: Marriage at young age, multiple pregnancies, low preference toward temporary methods of contraception, high addiction were prevalent in this lower socioeconomic young workforce. Morbidity was statistically significant among ragpickers who collected rags along dumpsite than street side and door to door waste collectors (χ2 = 27.8; df = 2; P < 0.001 significant). A need-based training program helped to improve knowledge of the participants [z = 12.7 (P < 0.05)].Conclusions: Unfulfilled health needs of this underprivileged workforce who contributes to the ecology and economy of the city need to be addressed. Sensitization of both general public and government is essential to legitimize this occupation. This in turn may help to alleviate poverty and environmental degradation; characteristic of rapid and unplanned urbanization in India.


Bhise S.S.,Grant Government Medical College | Chavan G.S.,Grant Government Medical College | Nanandkar S.D.,Grant Government Medical College | Chikhalkar B.G.,Grant Government Medical College | Thube H.R.,Grant Government Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2015

Uterine adenomyosis is an important problem for women of reproductive age. Although hysterectomy has been the traditional treatment for symptomatic fibroids, many child bearing women are interested in a less invasive therapy. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a new technique for treating a variety of solid tumors. The procedure is completely noninvasive. It is performed as an outpatient procedure and the patient can resume her normal activities the day following the procedure. A 39 years female came with c/o dysmenorrheal, menorrhagia and polymenorrhagia since 5 years. Patient's vitals were normal before procedure but patient suddenly collapsed and died after procedure. Dead body was forwarded for postmortem examination. During postmortem it was found that there was 3 liter of blood in peritoneum. As this is the safest outpatient procedure then what was the reason for this 3 liter of blood in abdominal cavity...?.


Wabale V.R.,Grant Government Medical College | Joshi A.A.,Grant Government Medical College | Muthaiah M.,Government of Puducherry | Chowdhary A.S.,Grant Government Medical College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

Standard culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to pyrazinamide (PZA) is difficult to perform. PZA is a prodrug that has to be converted to its active form pyrazinoic acid (POA) by pyrazinamidase (PZase) enzyme, encoded by pncA gene and loss of PZase activity is associated with PZA resistance. To further define genetic basis of PZA resistance and determine the frequency of PZA-resistant strains having pncA mutations. A 100 MTB isolates were examined for PZA susceptibility and analyzed. MTB were identified by phenotypic & genotypic methods. pncA genes from these strains were amplified. Mutations in the sequences of pncA genes from PZAresistant strains were identified by comparison with wild-type MTB gene sequence using CLC protein workbench version 5.0 software. The frequency of mutations and amino acid changes in the target pncA gene were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to know the strain variation among the drug resistant population. 34 among 100 had pncA mutations including nucleotide substitutions (missense mutations), insertions (64.7%) and small deletions (nonsense mutations) (29.4%), causing amino acid substitutions in most cases; frame shifts leading to nonsense polypeptides (5.9%). Identified mutations found dispersed along pncA gene, but some degree of clustering of mutations observed in Pro38Leu, Ile16Ser, Val150Ala and Asp97Asx regions. PCR based sequencing assay targeting pncA mutations, can reliably detect PZA resistance in Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) and rules out PZA resistance in non-MDR MTB isolates. Molecular assays are probably the way forward for detecting PZA resistance.


Wabale V.R.,Grant Government Medical College | Joshi A.A.,Grant Government Medical College | Bharadwaj R.S.,Bj Medical College And Sassoon Hospital | Chowdhary A.S.,Grant Government Medical College | Sarkar B.L.,Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

Vibrio cholerae erupted as leading, unpredictable, potent pathogen to the global fear of reemergence with an ability to cause epidemics and antibiotic resistance. Newer molecular and more discriminatory procedures helping epidemiologists to understand evolution, spread and emergence of newer variants. To study prevalence of V. cholerae and to identify current circulating biotype, serotype, phage type and changing pattern of antibiotic resistogram for epidemiological purpose. Hanging drop preparations (HDP) technique performed on all samples. Identified strains were serotyped using high titer antisera against O1, Ogawa, Inaba and O139. Phage typing by 'Basu and Mukherjee' & 'New Scheme' performed. Antibiogram had done using modified Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method by standard CLSI guidelines. HDP showed more specificity (75.77%, HDP + culture positive) than sensitivity (24.22%, culture positive, HDP negative). Gentamycin showed 100% sensitivity. Co-trimoxazol showed 100% resistance from 2008 onwards. T-4 was common phage type been replaced by T-2 by 'Basu and Mukherjee' scheme while, T- 27 was the only predominant one by 'New scheme'. In 2009, newer phage variants observed. High incidence rate of diarrhea due to V. cholerae is of utmost importance. HDP still has a limited role in diagnosis. Important to study biotype, serotype, phage type and resistogram prevalent in that area for epidemiological control purpose. Appearance of different circulating phage types in Mumbai, probably originating from different parts of country.


Parikh R.,Grant Government Medical College | Bakhshi G.,Grant Government Medical College | Naik M.,Grant Government Medical College | Gaikwad B.,Grant Government Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Plastic Surgery | Year: 2016

Background Some of the relatively newer, more efficacious, and potent topical wound dressing solutions include tetrachlorodecaoxide and super-oxidised solution. This study compares the efficacy and safety of these two drugs. Methods This is a block-randomised, double blind, parallel-arm, post-marketing study. One hundred fifty patients with ulcers (75 blocks uniform for sex, ulcer aetiology, diabetes mellitus, and wound area score) were randomised into the two treatment arms. Patients were observed for eight weeks with weekly assessments. One hundred and twenty patients completed the study. Wound healing was objectively assessed by measurement of wound area, scoring of wound exudation and tissue type, and using the pressure ulcer scale of healing Tool (validated for multiple wound aetiologies). Subjective improvement in pain was noted using a visual analogue scale. Both groups were compared using Mann–Whitney U test on all indicators. Results Difference in change in wound tissue type in the two groups was significant (α= 0.05) by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis at the end of week two (ITT and PP, P<0.001) and week four (ITT, P= 0.010; PP, P= 0.009). P-values for other comparisons were not significant (P> 0.05). No study-related adverse events were observed. Conclusions Both drugs are efficacious. Tetrachlorodecaoxide yields healthy granulation tissue earlier. Both drugs appear to be safe for application. © 2016 The Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons.


Dhar M.H.,Bj Government Medical College | Shah K.U.,Grant Government Medical College | Ghongane B.B.,Bj Government Medical College | Rane S.R.,Bj Government Medical College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Gentamicin and Ceftazidime are commonly used antibiotics, but their use is limited by potential nephrotoxicity. In the present study, the nephroprotective activity of Crocus sativus was evaluated against Gentamicin and/or Ceftazidime-induced renal toxicity. Ethanolic extract of stigmas of Crocus sativus was administered (i.p.) once daily to albino rats 30 min. before administration of Gentamicin or Ceftazidime (i.m.) alone and in combination for 10 days. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by estimation of biochemical parameters, 24 hrs urine output, urinalysis, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), body and kidney weights; and kidney histopathology were evaluated. Extract alone had no significant effect. In gentamicin-treated rats, body weights and urine output were significantly lower than control rats; along with marked proteinuria, significant increase in blood urea, serum creatinine, ESR and kidney weights with changes in serum electrolytes. This nephrotoxicity was confirmed by histopathology. Ceftazidime induced similar but lesser damage. Their combination induced toxicity greater than individual drugs. These changes were prevented by the extract of Crocus sativus - a promising nephroprotective agent.


PubMed | Tn Medical College, Grant Government Medical College and Post Graduate Research Building
Type: | Journal: Advances in preventive medicine | Year: 2014

Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHOs 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as childs illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a felt need of the mothers in the community.

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