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Dhar M.H.,Bj Government Medical College | Shah K.U.,Grant Government Medical College | Ghongane B.B.,Bj Government Medical College | Rane S.R.,Bj Government Medical College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

Gentamicin and Ceftazidime are commonly used antibiotics, but their use is limited by potential nephrotoxicity. In the present study, the nephroprotective activity of Crocus sativus was evaluated against Gentamicin and/or Ceftazidime-induced renal toxicity. Ethanolic extract of stigmas of Crocus sativus was administered (i.p.) once daily to albino rats 30 min. before administration of Gentamicin or Ceftazidime (i.m.) alone and in combination for 10 days. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by estimation of biochemical parameters, 24 hrs urine output, urinalysis, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), body and kidney weights; and kidney histopathology were evaluated. Extract alone had no significant effect. In gentamicin-treated rats, body weights and urine output were significantly lower than control rats; along with marked proteinuria, significant increase in blood urea, serum creatinine, ESR and kidney weights with changes in serum electrolytes. This nephrotoxicity was confirmed by histopathology. Ceftazidime induced similar but lesser damage. Their combination induced toxicity greater than individual drugs. These changes were prevented by the extract of Crocus sativus - a promising nephroprotective agent.

Meshram A.H.,Grant Government Medical College | Nanandkar S.D.,Grant Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology | Year: 2013

The case of a 07 year-old Indian female found dead at the second floor of a new building construction site, at Mumbai, in an semi-nude state with blood stains at mouth and ears. The scene investigation and autopsy findings suggested a sexual assault with multiple injuries over body with ligature mark around neck. The approach to the post-mortem examination using different laboratory tests was reviewed. The present report suggests the importance of autopsy examination in rape victim associated with multiple injuries and ligature strangulation with special reference to acid phosphatase test.

Uplap P.A.,Grant Government Medical College | Bhate K.,Seth GS Medical College
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: In India, ragpickers form the base of hierarchy of informal sector of the solid waste management. Assessment of general and gender specific health of women is conducted in this study in view of dearth of published evidence.Materials and Methods: An interventional study was conducted from October 2003 to April 2005 in Mumbai, at the field office of a nongovernmental organization working for women ragpickers. By the systematic random sampling 168 women ragpickers were selected. Both general and gender-specific health needs of this socially and occupationally marginalized group, including health seeking behavior were explored in this study. Fourteen participants were trained as health volunteers to create awareness in the local community. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11.0 software program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).Results: Marriage at young age, multiple pregnancies, low preference toward temporary methods of contraception, high addiction were prevalent in this lower socioeconomic young workforce. Morbidity was statistically significant among ragpickers who collected rags along dumpsite than street side and door to door waste collectors (χ2 = 27.8; df = 2; P < 0.001 significant). A need-based training program helped to improve knowledge of the participants [z = 12.7 (P < 0.05)].Conclusions: Unfulfilled health needs of this underprivileged workforce who contributes to the ecology and economy of the city need to be addressed. Sensitization of both general public and government is essential to legitimize this occupation. This in turn may help to alleviate poverty and environmental degradation; characteristic of rapid and unplanned urbanization in India.

Wabale V.R.,Grant Government Medical College | Joshi A.A.,Grant Government Medical College | Bharadwaj R.S.,Bj Medical College And Sassoon Hospital | Chowdhary A.S.,Grant Government Medical College | Sarkar B.L.,Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2016

Vibrio cholerae erupted as leading, unpredictable, potent pathogen to the global fear of reemergence with an ability to cause epidemics and antibiotic resistance. Newer molecular and more discriminatory procedures helping epidemiologists to understand evolution, spread and emergence of newer variants. To study prevalence of V. cholerae and to identify current circulating biotype, serotype, phage type and changing pattern of antibiotic resistogram for epidemiological purpose. Hanging drop preparations (HDP) technique performed on all samples. Identified strains were serotyped using high titer antisera against O1, Ogawa, Inaba and O139. Phage typing by 'Basu and Mukherjee' & 'New Scheme' performed. Antibiogram had done using modified Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method by standard CLSI guidelines. HDP showed more specificity (75.77%, HDP + culture positive) than sensitivity (24.22%, culture positive, HDP negative). Gentamycin showed 100% sensitivity. Co-trimoxazol showed 100% resistance from 2008 onwards. T-4 was common phage type been replaced by T-2 by 'Basu and Mukherjee' scheme while, T- 27 was the only predominant one by 'New scheme'. In 2009, newer phage variants observed. High incidence rate of diarrhea due to V. cholerae is of utmost importance. HDP still has a limited role in diagnosis. Important to study biotype, serotype, phage type and resistogram prevalent in that area for epidemiological control purpose. Appearance of different circulating phage types in Mumbai, probably originating from different parts of country.

Lanjewar D.N.,Grant Government Medical College | Bhatia V.O.,Grant Government Medical College | Lanjewar S.D.,SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2016

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India has now been prevalent over three decades, and an increasing number of children are being affected with HIV. The spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in India has not been well described. Materials and Methods: A review of systematically conducted autopsies of 11 (10 boys and 1 girl) children with AIDS is presented. Results: The mode of HIV transmission in 6 children was vertical; in one it was blood transfusion and in 4 children route was presumably vertical as these were children of orphanage. The clinical manifestations were failure to thrive; 9 children, persistent gastroenteritis; 8, recurrent fever; 5, bacterial infections; 5, hepatosplenomegaly; 5, candidiasis; 1, scabies; 1, skin rash; 2, tuberculous (TB) meningitis; 1 and paraplegia; in 1 child. The spectrum of pathologic lesions observed were precocious involution in thymus in 3 and dysinvolution in 2 cases. Infectious diseases comprised of TB; 4 cases, cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) 4; bacterial pneumonia and meningitis; 7, and esophageal candidiasis in 2 cases. Dual or multiple infections were observed in 9 (82%) cases; these comprised of two lesions in 2, three lesions in 2, four lesions in 4, and five lesions in 1 case. TB, bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and CMV infection are the most frequent causes of death in children with AIDS. Vascular lesions showing features of arteriopathy were observed in 5 cases and brain in one case showed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusions: This study provides a better insight into the spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with AIDS in India. TB and CMV infection has been found to be the most prevalent infection in our children. © 2016 Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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