Grant County Public Utility District

Ephrata, WA, United States

Grant County Public Utility District

Ephrata, WA, United States
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Cram J.M.,515 Chelan Highway 97A | Cram J.M.,University of Washington | Torgersen C.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Klett R.S.,Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation | And 4 more authors.
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2017

We investigated physical habitat conditions associated with the spawning sites of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and the interannual consistency of spawning distribution across multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatially continuous and discrete sampling methods. We conducted a census of aquatic habitat in 76 km of the upper main-stem Yakima River in Washington and evaluated spawning site distribution using redd survey data from 2004 to 2008. Interannual reoccupation of spawning areas was high, ranging from an average Pearson’s correlation of 0.62 to 0.98 in channel subunits and 10-km reaches, respectively. Annual variance in the interannual correlation of spawning distribution was highest in channel units and subunits, but it was low at reach scales. In 13 of 15 models developed for individual years (2004–2008) and reach lengths (800 m, 3 km, 6 km), stream power and depth were the primary predictors of redd abundance. Multiple channels and overhead cover were patchy but were important secondary and tertiary predictors of reach-scale spawning site selection. Within channel units and subunits, pool tails and thermal variability, which may be associated with hyporheic exchange, were important predictors of spawning. We identified spawning habitat preferences within reaches and channel units that are relevant for salmonid habitat restoration planning. We also identified a threshold (i.e., 2-km reaches) beyond which interannual spawning distribution was markedly consistent, which may be informative for prioritizing habitat restoration or conservation. Management actions may be improved through enhanced understanding of spawning habitat preferences and the consistency with which Chinook Salmon reoccupy spawning areas at different spatial scales. Received July 1, 2016; accepted October 18, 2016 Published online January 19, 2017 © American Fisheries Society 2017.


Jones A.,HDR | Snyder K.,HDR | Charlwood R.,Robin Charlwood and Associates PLLC | Marshall K.,Grant County Public Utility District | Campbell D.,Grant County Public Utility District
Association of State Dam Safety Officials, Dam Safety 2015 | Year: 2015

In February 2014, significant movement of Spillway Monolith No. 4 was observed at Wanapum Dam. The movement was caused by cracking and vertical and horizontal displacement along a submerged lift joint. This paper describes the spillway incident and Forensic Investigation/Root Cause Analysis (FI/RCA) that was performed to identify the triggering events and contributing factors. The FI/RCA determined that the crack initiated due to tensile stresses in the upstream face, exacerbated by concrete fatigue and uplift intrusion. The spillway was stabilized with post-tensioned anchors and lift joint drains. Lessons learned during the FI/RCA process include:• Thermal tensile stresses, often neglected during design, can be high enough to initiate cracking. • Relying on moderate tensile strength may be inappropriate if the affected section is not stable if cracking occurs. • Monoliths within the body of the dam may be vulnerable to overturning if drainage measures do not extend into the dam. © Copyright 2015 Association of State Dam Safety Officials, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Pearsons T.N.,Grant County Public Utility District
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012

Hatchery cultured salmon have the potential to interact strongly with other valued fish taxa (non-target taxa; NTT) in the natural environment. Monitoring and managing adverse interactions between hatchery supplemented salmon and NTT is one unique characteristic of a hatchery salmon supplementation program in the Yakima River, Washington. In this study, we evaluate impacts of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon O. kisutch reintroduction to 15 NTT after 11 years of stocking approximately one million yearling smolts annually in the upper Yakima Basin between 1999 and 2009. Our risk management monitoring indicated changes in important response variables for NTT were within acceptable limits. Rigorous pre-implementation planning likely prevented many undesirable ecological impacts from the hatchery supplementation program. We illustrate a number of important features associated with risk management of hatchery and wild fish interactions. First, pre-project planning can eliminate many risks of concern and substantially reduce the need for risk containment during project implementation. Second, the sieve approach for monitoring impacts provided an acceptable balance between monitoring effort and risk containment ability, although in some cases, we would not detect impacts of interest. Third, rare and disbursed species that cannot be monitored effectively benefit from risk averse hatchery release strategies. Fourth, risk containment monitoring programs can be used to refute unsubstantiated claims of undesirable impacts. In short, our experience suggests that risk management of ecological interactions can occur by using a combination of pre-project adjustments through risk assessment and risk reduction, and by cost-effective risk containment monitoring and management. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Knudsen C.M.,Oncorh Consulting | Pearsons T.N.,Grant County Public Utility District | Beall E.P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fast D.E.,Yakama Nation
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012

In 1997 the Cle Elum Supplementation Research Facility was established to enhance spring Chinook salmon returning to the upper Yakima River, Washington State. This effort increased spring Chinook abundance, yet conditions at the hatchery also significantly elevated the occurrence of jacks and yearling precocious males. The potential genetic effect that a large influx of early maturing males might have on the upper Yakima River spring Chinook population was examined in an artificial stream. Seven independent groups of fish were placed into the stream from 2001 through 2005. Males with four different life history strategies, large anadromous, jacks, yearling precocious, and sub-yearling precocious were used. Their breeding success or ability to produce offspring was estimated by performing DNA-based pedigree assessments. Large anadromous males spawned with the most females and produced the greatest number of offspring per mate. Jacks and yearling precocious males spawned with more females than sub-yearling precocious males. However, jacks, yearling and sub-yearling precocious males obtained similar numbers of fry per mate. In the test groups, large anadromous males produced 89%, jacks 3%, yearling precocious 7%, and sub-yearling precocious 1% of the fry. These percentages remained stable even though the proportion of large anadromous males in the test groups ranged from 48% to 88% and tertiary sex ratios varied from 1. 4 to 2. 4 males per female. Our data suggest that large anadromous males generate most of the fry in natural settings when half or more of the males present on a spawning ground use this life history strategy. © 2011 The Author(s).


Pearsons T.N.,Grant County Public Utility District
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society | Year: 2010

We evaluated the changes in (1) the abundance, size, and biomass of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, (2) the abundance of spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha parr, and (3) the combined biomass of rainbow trout and Chinook salmon parr after nine annual releases of approximately 250,000 Chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch smolts into the North Fork of the Teanaway River, Washington. The trout and salmon were sampled in two treatment locations consisting of five sites and three control locations consisting of seven sites before (1990-1998) and during hatchery releases (1999-2007). We detected statistically significant decreases of rainbow trout abundance and biomass in both treatment streams relative to two of the three control streams. Furthermore, all of the differences in abundance between treatment and control streams were in the negative direction. All but one of the differences in biomass was negative. The only statistically significant change in the combined biomass of spring Chinook salmon parr and rainbow trout before and during supplementation was negative, and five of the six differences in combined biomass were negative. Only one of the four comparisons of the ratio of the log-transformed weight to length of rainbow trout was statistically significant, and it decreased during supplementation; one-half of the comparisons were positive and the other half negative. The changes to rainbow trout abundance and biomass were probably the result of the cumulative impacts from hatchery-released Chinook salmon smolts and an increase in naturally produced Chinook salmon parr. © Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2010.


McCann M.W.,R. Park and Associates Inc. | McCann M.W.,Stanford University | Christman W.,Chelan County Public Utility District | Lord D.W.,Risk Informed Decision Making | And 5 more authors.
Association of State Dam Safety Officials Annual Conference 2014, Dam Safety 2014 | Year: 2014

Approximately ten years ago Bakun, et al. [1] presented new information about the magnitude and location of the 1872 Chelan earthquake. This work prompted the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to re-evaluate the earthquake ground motions that could be expected at hydropower projects in the Mid-Columbia region. At the same time, the FERC was laying the groundwork to move toward adopting a risk-informed regulatory approach to dam safety. For these reasons, they recommended the Mid-Columbia public utility districts (PUD), Chelan, Grant and Douglas counties, work together to conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for the region. Now that the FERC has formally committed to incorporating risk-informed decision making into its dam safety program, this paper addresses two fundamental questions: • How can the results of a PSHA be used in the seismic safety evaluation of hydropower projects? and • How can risk-informed seismic evaluations of hydropower projects be carried out in the context of the FERC's commitment to incorporate risk-informed decision-making in its regulatory processes? Working with the FERC, Chelan and Grant County PUD's initiated a project to develop a risk-informed seismic evaluation process to address these questions. As part of this effort they are currently evaluating several project sub-systems with the ultimate intent of implementing the methodology for their entire projects. This paper summarizes the risk-informed seismic project and some of the lessons and insights that have been learned.


Rand P.S.,Wild Salmon Center | Berejikian B.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Bidlack A.,Cordova | Bottom D.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2012

Advances in salmon culture practices during the latter part of the 20 th century provided the opportunity for mass production of juvenile salmon. Hatchery-produced salmon currently outnumber wild salmon in some regions around the Pacific Rim, raising concerns about their ecological impacts on wild salmon. We convened five regional sessions at an international conference to identify and discuss issues related to ecological interactions between wild and hatchery salmon. Session participants were charged with identifying key interaction types by salmon life stage. Each group was asked to summarize key research needs and identify management actions that might be needed to reduce risks from hatchery programs. Some common themes emerged in all the sessions, including the importance of predation and competition interactions in freshwater environments during juvenile life stages and breeding interactions among adults. Much less is understood about interactions in estuarine and marine ecosystems, even though these environments may be critical in determining recruitment success. Some groups identified a need for field experiments to test hypotheses related to ecological interactions and the need to understand and, where possible, control hatchery straying. Some groups also discussed the importance of carrying capacity in different environments and how hatchery programs may be contributing to density-dependent effects. There is a lack of focused studies on ecological interactions between wild and hatchery salmon in the Western Pacific. The authors of this paper hope to encourage new research efforts to better understand ecological interactions to help inform management efforts aimed at reducing hatchery risks to wild salmon. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Dittman A.H.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Pearsons T.N.,Grant County Public Utility District | May D.,University of Washington | Couture R.B.,Oregon State University | Noakes D.L.G.,Oregon State University
Fisheries | Year: 2015

Straying by hatchery-reared salmon is a major concern for conservation and recovery of many salmon populations. Fisheries managers have attempted to minimize negative ecological and genetic interactions between hatchery and wild fish by using parr-smolt acclimation facilities to ensure successful olfactory imprinting and homing fidelity. However, the effectiveness of offsite acclimation for returning adults to targeted locations has been mixed. Since laboratory and field studies indicate that the period of hatching and emergence from the natal gravel is a sensitive period for olfactory imprinting, we propose an alternative imprinting approach wherein salmon are exposed as embryos to targeted waters transferred to their rearing hatchery. To test the feasibility of this approach, we conducted a series of electrophysiological and behavioral experiments to determine whether water can be successfully transferred, stored, and treated for pathogens without jeopardizing its chemical integrity. Stream water could be frozen or stored for one week at 4° or 10° C without affecting the olfactory signature. Ultraviolet light treatment altered the responses of the olfactory epithelium to stream water; however, behavioral studies suggested that this treatment did not alter the attractiveness of this water. Finally, we describe several alternative approaches to embryonic imprinting using artificial odors. © 2015, American Fisheries Society.


Cram J.M.,University of Washington | Torgersen C.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Klett R.S.,University of Washington | Pess G.R.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Biology of Fishes | Year: 2013

Spawning site selection by female salmon is based on complex and poorly understood tradeoffs between the homing instinct and the availability of appropriate habitat for successful reproduction. Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) released from different acclimation sites return with varying degrees of fidelity to these areas. To investigate the possibility that homing fidelity is associated with aquatic habitat conditions, we quantified physical habitat throughout 165 km in the upper Yakima River basin (Washington, USA) and mapped redd and carcass locations from 2004 to 2008. Principal components analysis identified differences in substrate, cover, stream width, and gradient among reaches surrounding acclimation sites, and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that these differences in habitat characteristics were associated with spatial patterns of spawning (p < 0. 01). These analyses indicated that female salmon may forego spawning near their acclimation area if the surrounding habitat is unsuitable. Evaluating the spatial context of acclimation areas in relation to surrounding habitat may provide essential information for effectively managing supplementation programs and prioritizing restoration actions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Annual differences in ecological interactions between hatchery origin fish and the taxa that interact with them should be considered when managing hatcheries because of the potential for impacts to target and non-target taxa (i.e., taxa that are not the target of a management action). A major component of the traditional hatchery paradigm is to release approximately the same number of fish of the same species every year from the same location(s) regardless of ecological conditions. This paradigm occurs in integrated and segregated hatchery programs and generally ignores ecological feedback mechanisms within the environment that can reduce survival of hatchery and wild fish. In addition, it assumes that the carrying capacity of the environment is static and underseeded, which if incorrect can result in replacement of wild fish by hatchery con-specifics. Furthermore, practitioners of the paradigm may not consider impacts to other species that are not the target of enhancement or assumes impacts to be acceptable. To address these issues, I describe an alternative approach that prescribes stocking in places and times when: (1) ecosystem indicators suggest that risks to non-target taxa are acceptable, (2) the environment is near or below carrying capacity or density-dependent impacts are considered acceptable, and (3) ecological feedback mechanisms are in a desirable state. Indicators can also be used to refine fish rearing and stocking practices to enhance ecosystem benefits. According to this concept, fish would not be stocked in places and at times where ecosystem indicators are unfavorable. Although there are many potential ecological, genetic, and economic benefits of context-specific hatchery releases, the concept should be tested before it is applied broadly. This concept may be untenable in areas with legally-mandated release locations and numbers, or unnecessary for hatchery programs where all management goals are met.

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