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Duque de Caxias, Brazil

Reis R.E.,Grande Rio University
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2013

South America harbours the most diverse freshwater fish fauna in the world, and recent estimates point to between 6000 and 8000 species in the Neotropical region. Such fauna has diverse historical origins, either having invaded and diversified in fresh water from marine ancestors during the Palaeogene or being isolated on the continent since the end of the break-up of Gondwana in the Cretaceous. Taxonomic, morphological and ecological diversity of South American freshwater fishes is dramatic, as are the myriad freshwater habitats they inhabit. Unfortunately, many of these habitats are severely threatened by deforestation, water divergence for irrigation, industry and other uses by humans, hydroelectric damming, mining, pollution and invasive species. Despite these multiple threats, there are very few on-the-ground conservation initiatives in South America, although assessments of species-extinction risks have been produced at regional and subregional levels in different countries. © 2013 The Zoological Society of London. Source

Khatchatourian O.A.,Grande Rio University
Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2012

Thin-layer drying tests were conducted for soya bean in the temperature range 45-120 °C, velocity range 0-3 m s -1, initial grain moisture content 0.13-0.32 dec., d.b., with variations in relative air humidity 5-50%. To generate air of required humidity the water vapour was injected after the air heater. The influence of velocity on drying dynamics essentially depends on initial grain moisture content. At low values of initial grain moisture content (<0.22 dec., d.b.) influence of velocity was practically absent. At high moisture content (>0.32 dec., d.b.) increases in air velocity (from 0.12 m s -1 up to 0.37 m s -1) led initially to acceleration in the drying process. Subsequent increases in velocity (from 0.5 m s -1 up to 2.5 m s -1) did not practically influence drying dynamics. In the absence of airflow the drying ratio is less essential than even the lowest velocity (0.12 m s -1) used in the experiments. The increases in air humidity that slows down the drying process are related with the increase in value of the equilibrium moisture content. The dependences of the moisture ratio with time under identical initial condition did not practically depend on air humidity. To describe the experimental results obtained it was proposed to consider the soya bean seed as composed of two compartments with different transfer coefficients. The resulting thin-layer drying model consisted of two ordinary differential equations, considered the influence of all the studied parameters and satisfactorily described all experimental data. © 2012 IAgrE. Source

Zhang L.,Grande Rio University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Airway oedema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965), MEDLINE (1966 to April week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 2013), LILACS (1985 to May 2013) and Web of Science (1955 to May 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using nebulised hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention and nebulised 0.9% saline as a comparator in infants up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis. Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias in included studies. We conducted meta-analyses using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.2. We used the random-effects model for meta-analyses. We used mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) as effect size metrics. We included 11 trials involving 1090 infants with mild to moderate acute viral bronchiolitis (500 inpatients, five trials; 65 outpatients, one trial; and 525 emergency department patients, four trials). All but one of the included trials were of high quality with a low risk of bias. A total of 560 patients received hypertonic saline (3% saline n = 503; 5% saline n = 57). Patients treated with nebulised 3% saline had a significantly shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those treated with nebulised 0.9% saline (MD -1.15 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.49 to -0.82, P < 0.00001). The hypertonic saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first three days of treatment (day 1: MD -0.88, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.39, P = 0.0004; day 2: MD -1.32, 95% CI -2.00 to -0.64, P = 0.001; day 3: MD -1.51, 95% CI -1.88 to -1.14, P < 0.00001). The effects of improving clinical score were observed in both outpatients and inpatients. Four emergency department-based trials did not show any significant short-term effects (30 to 120 minutes) of up to three doses of nebulised 3% saline in improving clinical score and oxygen saturation. No significant adverse events related to hypertonic saline inhalation were reported. Current evidence suggests nebulised 3% saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay among infants hospitalised with non-severe acute viral bronchiolitis and improve the clinical severity score in both outpatient and inpatient populations. Source

Costa F.B.,Grande Rio University
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2014

In the few years, wavelet-based methodologies have been proposed as a good alternative for real-time fault detection. However, these methodologies usually fail to detect faults with overdamped transients and they are highly influenced by the choice of the mother wavelet, presenting time delay in the real-time analysis. By using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) or the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), the wavelet coefficient energy has been also used for fault analysis and presents the same drawbacks of the wavelet coefficient analysis. However, this paper presents a novel wavelet-based methodology for real-time detection of fault-induced transients in transmission lines, where the wavelet coefficient energy takes into account the border effects of the sliding windows. As a consequence, the performance of the proposed energy analysis is not affected by the choice of the mother wavelet, presenting no time delay in real-time fault detection, and the fault detection is scarcely influenced to the fault inception angle, fault resistance, and fault location, even if in critical situations where there are no fault-induced transients. The performance of the proposed methodology was assessed by using actual and simulated data. Some records were reproduced to be analyzed in real time with a digital signal processor. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source

Dias E.C.,Grande Rio University
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to verify the presence of a microgap between implants and prosthetic abutments on their external surfaces in five different external-hex implant systems and to determine whether bacterial leakage occurs through the implant-abutment (I-A) interface. Ten samples of each implant system were used. Eight samples of each implant system were inoculated with 0.3 μL of a suspension of Escherichia coli for bacterial leakage evaluation. Two other samples were used as controls. Sample analysis was accomplished at 24 and 48 hours and on the 5th, 7th, and 14th day after inoculation. After microbiologic analysis, all samples were prepared for I-A interface evaluation by scanning electron microscopy. The mean of the microgap misfit was obtained from six points at x1,000 and x3,000 magnifications. The Neodent implant system (0.51 ± 0.39 μm) showed the closest adaptation, followed by Dentoflex (1.44 ± 0.73 μm), Titanium Fix (1.88 ± 1.28 μm), SIN (2.46 ± 3.38 μm), and Conexão (2.68 ± 3.02 Μm). Twenty-five percent of the Dentoflex samples showed bacterial leakage through the I-A interface; no other implant system presented bacterial leakage. The width of the microgap at the I-A interface was less than 3 μm in all systems. A direct correlation between bacterial leakage and I-A interface misfit was not observed. Source

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