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Duque de Caxias, Brazil

Zhang L.,Grande Rio University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Airway oedema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965), MEDLINE (1966 to April week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 2013), LILACS (1985 to May 2013) and Web of Science (1955 to May 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using nebulised hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention and nebulised 0.9% saline as a comparator in infants up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis. Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias in included studies. We conducted meta-analyses using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.2. We used the random-effects model for meta-analyses. We used mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) as effect size metrics. We included 11 trials involving 1090 infants with mild to moderate acute viral bronchiolitis (500 inpatients, five trials; 65 outpatients, one trial; and 525 emergency department patients, four trials). All but one of the included trials were of high quality with a low risk of bias. A total of 560 patients received hypertonic saline (3% saline n = 503; 5% saline n = 57). Patients treated with nebulised 3% saline had a significantly shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those treated with nebulised 0.9% saline (MD -1.15 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.49 to -0.82, P < 0.00001). The hypertonic saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first three days of treatment (day 1: MD -0.88, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.39, P = 0.0004; day 2: MD -1.32, 95% CI -2.00 to -0.64, P = 0.001; day 3: MD -1.51, 95% CI -1.88 to -1.14, P < 0.00001). The effects of improving clinical score were observed in both outpatients and inpatients. Four emergency department-based trials did not show any significant short-term effects (30 to 120 minutes) of up to three doses of nebulised 3% saline in improving clinical score and oxygen saturation. No significant adverse events related to hypertonic saline inhalation were reported. Current evidence suggests nebulised 3% saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay among infants hospitalised with non-severe acute viral bronchiolitis and improve the clinical severity score in both outpatient and inpatient populations. Source

Costa F.B.,Grande Rio University
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2014

In the few years, wavelet-based methodologies have been proposed as a good alternative for real-time fault detection. However, these methodologies usually fail to detect faults with overdamped transients and they are highly influenced by the choice of the mother wavelet, presenting time delay in the real-time analysis. By using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) or the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), the wavelet coefficient energy has been also used for fault analysis and presents the same drawbacks of the wavelet coefficient analysis. However, this paper presents a novel wavelet-based methodology for real-time detection of fault-induced transients in transmission lines, where the wavelet coefficient energy takes into account the border effects of the sliding windows. As a consequence, the performance of the proposed energy analysis is not affected by the choice of the mother wavelet, presenting no time delay in real-time fault detection, and the fault detection is scarcely influenced to the fault inception angle, fault resistance, and fault location, even if in critical situations where there are no fault-induced transients. The performance of the proposed methodology was assessed by using actual and simulated data. Some records were reproduced to be analyzed in real time with a digital signal processor. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source

Dias E.C.,Grande Rio University
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to verify the presence of a microgap between implants and prosthetic abutments on their external surfaces in five different external-hex implant systems and to determine whether bacterial leakage occurs through the implant-abutment (I-A) interface. Ten samples of each implant system were used. Eight samples of each implant system were inoculated with 0.3 μL of a suspension of Escherichia coli for bacterial leakage evaluation. Two other samples were used as controls. Sample analysis was accomplished at 24 and 48 hours and on the 5th, 7th, and 14th day after inoculation. After microbiologic analysis, all samples were prepared for I-A interface evaluation by scanning electron microscopy. The mean of the microgap misfit was obtained from six points at x1,000 and x3,000 magnifications. The Neodent implant system (0.51 ± 0.39 μm) showed the closest adaptation, followed by Dentoflex (1.44 ± 0.73 μm), Titanium Fix (1.88 ± 1.28 μm), SIN (2.46 ± 3.38 μm), and Conexão (2.68 ± 3.02 Μm). Twenty-five percent of the Dentoflex samples showed bacterial leakage through the I-A interface; no other implant system presented bacterial leakage. The width of the microgap at the I-A interface was less than 3 μm in all systems. A direct correlation between bacterial leakage and I-A interface misfit was not observed. Source

Zhang L.,Grande Rio University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Routine use of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines was suspended in some countries in the 1970s and 1980s because of concerns about adverse effects. Following such action, there was a resurgence of whooping cough. Acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, containing purified or recombinant Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antigens, were developed in the hope that they would be as effective, but less reactogenic than the whole-cell vaccines. To assess the efficacy and safety of acellular pertussis vaccines in children. We searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4) which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 4, 2011), EMBASE (1974 to January 2012), Biosis Previews (2009 to January 2012), and CINAHL (2009 to January 2012). We selected double-blind randomised efficacy and safety trials of aP vaccines in children up to six years old, with active follow-up of participants and laboratory verification of pertussis cases. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the studies. Differences in trial design precluded a meta-analysis of the efficacy data. We pooled the safety data from individual trials using a random-effects meta-analysis model. We included six efficacy trials with a total of 46,283 participants and 52 safety trials with a total of 136,541 participants. Most of the safety trials did not report the methods for random sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, which made it difficult to assess the risk of bias in the studies. The efficacy of multi-component (≥ three) vaccines varied from 84% to 85% in preventing typical whooping cough (characterised by 21 or more consecutive days of paroxysmal cough with confirmation of B. pertussis infection by culture, appropriate serology or contact with a household member who has culture-confirmed pertussis), and from 71% to 78% in preventing mild pertussis disease (characterised by seven or more consecutive days of cough with confirmation of B. pertussis infection by culture or appropriate serology). In contrast, the efficacy of one- and two-component vaccines varied from 59% to 75% against typical whooping cough and from 13% to 54% against mild pertussis disease. Multi-component acellular vaccines are more effective than low-efficacy whole-cell vaccines, but may be less effective than the highest-efficacy whole-cell vaccines. Most systemic and local adverse events were significantly less common with aP vaccines than with wP vaccines for the primary series as well as for the booster dose. Multi-component (≥ three) aP vaccines are effective and show less adverse effects than wP vaccines for the primary series as well as for booster doses. Source

Jacques J.C.S.,Grande Rio University | Jung C.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2010

This article presents a survey on crowd analysis using computer vision techniques, covering different aspects such as people tracking, crowd density estimation, event detection, validation, and simulation. It also reports how related the areas of computer vision and computer graphics should be to deal with current challenges in crowd analysis. © 2010 IEEE. Source

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