Grand Marais, MN, United States
Grand Marais, MN, United States

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Street G.M.,Mississippi State University | Fieberg J.,University of Minnesota | Rodgers A.R.,Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources | Carstensen M.,463 C West Broadway | And 4 more authors.
Landscape Ecology | Year: 2016

Context: Animals selectively use landscapes to meet their energetic needs, and trade-offs in habitat use may depend on availability and environmental conditions. For example, habitat selection at high temperatures may favor thermal cover at the cost of reduced foraging efficiency under consistently warm conditions. Objective: Our objective was to examine habitat selection and space use in distinct populations of moose (Alces alces). Hypothesizing that endotherm fitness is constrained by heat dissipation efficiency, we predicted that southerly populations would exhibit greater selection for thermal cover and reduced selection for foraging habitat. Methods: We estimated individual step selection functions with shrinkage for 134 adult female moose in Minnesota, USA, and 64 in Ontario, Canada, to assess habitat selection with variation in temperature, time of day, and habitat availability. We averaged model coefficients within each site to quantify selection strength for habitats differing in forage availability and thermal cover. Results: Moose in Ontario favored deciduous and mixedwood forest, indicating selection for foraging habitat across both diel and temperature. Habitat selection patterns of moose in Minnesota were more dynamic and indicated time- and temperature-dependent trade-offs between use of foraging habitat and thermal cover. Conclusions: We detected a scale-dependent functional response in habitat selection driven by the trade-off between selection for foraging habitat and thermal cover. Landscape composition and internal state interact to produce complex patterns of space use, and animals exposed to increasingly high temperatures may mitigate fitness losses from reduced foraging efficiency by increasing selection for foraging habitat in sub-prime foraging landscapes. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Yule D.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Moore S.A.,Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa | Ebener M.P.,Chippewa Ottawa Resource Authority | Claramunt R.M.,Charlevoix Fisheries Research Station | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Limnology | Year: 2013

Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a 'slim terete' morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a 'deep compressed' morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai's trace = 1.16, P < 0.0001). The final DFA model used nine body measurements and correctly classified 90% of the historic cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1,700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts. © 2013 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany.


Stockwell J.D.,University of Vermont | Yule D.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Hrabik T.R.,University of Minnesota | Sierszen M.E.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Isaac E.J.,Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2014

We hypothesised that the autumn spawning migration of Lake Superior cisco (Coregonus artedi) provides a resource subsidy, in the form of energy-rich cisco eggs, from the offshore pelagic to the nearshore benthic community over winter, when alternate prey production is likely to be low. We tested this hypothesis using fish and macroinvertebrate surveys, fish population demographics, diet and stable isotope analyses, and bioenergetics modelling. The benthic, congeneric lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis) was a clear beneficiary of cisco spawning. Cisco eggs represented 16% of lake whitefish annual consumption in terms of biomass, but 34% of energy (because of their high energy density: >10 kJ g wet mass-1). Stable isotope analyses were consistent with these results and suggest that other nearshore fish species may also rely on cisco eggs. The lipid content of lake whitefish liver almost doubled from 26 to 49% between November and March, while that of muscle increased from 14 to 26% over the same period, suggesting lake whitefish were building, rather than depleting, lipid reserves during winter. In the other Laurentian Great Lakes, where cisco populations remain very low and rehabilitation efforts are underway, the offshore-to-nearshore ecological link apparent in Lake Superior has been replaced by non-native planktivorous species. These non-native species spawn in spring have smaller eggs and shorter incubation periods. The rehabilitation of cisco in these systems should reinstate the onshore subsidy as it has in Lake Superior. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Madenjian C.P.,U.S. Geological Survey | Yule D.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Chernyak S.M.,University of Michigan | Begnoche L.J.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141. ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98. ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P< 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100. ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844. ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior. © 2014.


PubMed | University of Michigan, U.S. Geological Survey, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

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