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Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND, United States

Gammelgaard B.,Copenhagen University | Jackson M.I.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Gabel-Jensen C.,Copenhagen University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The aim of this review is to present and evaluate the present knowledge of which selenium species are available to the general population in the form of food and common supplements and how these species are metabolized in mammals. The overview of the selenium sources takes a horizontal approach, which encompasses identification of new metabolites in yeast and food of plant and animal origin, whereas the survey of the mammalian metabolism takes a horizontal as well as a vertical approach. The vertical approach encompasses studies on dynamic conversions of selenium compounds within cells, tissues or whole organisms. New and improved sample preparation, separation and detection methods are evaluated from an analytical chemical perspective to cover the progress in horizontal speciation, whereas the analytical methods for the vertical speciation and the interpretations of the results are evaluated from a biological angle as well. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Song M.,University of Louisville | Schuschke D.A.,University of Louisville | Zhou Z.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Chen T.,University of Louisville | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a variety of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Fructose feeding has been reported to exacerbate complications of copper deficiency. In this study, we investigated whether copper deficiency plays a role in fructose-induced fatty liver and explored the potential underlying mechanism(s). Methods: Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either an adequate copper or a marginally copper deficient diet for 4 weeks. Deionized water or deionized water containing 30% fructose (w/v) was also given ad lib. Copper and iron status, hepatic injury and steatosis, and duodenum copper transporter-1 (Ctr-1) were assessed. Results: Fructose feeding further impaired copper status and led to iron overload. Liver injury and fat accumulation were significantly induced in marginal copper deficient rats exposed to fructose as evidenced by robustly increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic triglyceride. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I (CPT I) expression was significantly inhibited, whereas hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) was markedly up-regulated in marginal copper deficient rats fed with fructose. Hepatic antioxidant defense system was suppressed and lipid peroxidation was increased by marginal copper deficiency and fructose feeding. Moreover, duodenum Ctr-1 expression was significantly increased by marginal copper deficiency, whereas this increase was abrogated by fructose feeding. Conclusions: Our data suggest that high fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be due, in part, to inadequate dietary copper. Impaired duodenum Ctr-1 expression seen in fructose feeding may lead to decreased copper absorption, and subsequent copper deficiency. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the European Association for the Study of the Liver.

Chen J.-R.,Arkansas Childrens Nutrition Center | Chen J.-R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Zhang J.,Arkansas Childrens Nutrition Center | Zhang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

In both rodents and humans, excessive consumption of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol is known to result in disruption of energy metabolism and development of obesity and insulin resistance. However, how these high-fat, energydense diets affect bone development, morphology, and modeling is poorly understood. Here we show that male weanling rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet containing 45% fat and 0.5% cholesterol made with casein (HF-Cas) for 6 wk displayed a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity and insulin resistance. Substitution of casein with soy protein isolate (SPI) in the HF diet (HF-SPI) prevented these effects. Maintenance of bone quantity in the SPI-fed rats was associated with increased undercarboxylated osteocalcin secretion and altered JNK/ IRS1/Akt insulin signaling in osteoblasts. The HF-Cas group had significantly greater serum nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations than controls, whereas the HF-SPI prevented this increase. In vitro treatment of osteoblasts or mesenchymal stromal ST2 cells with NEFAs significantly decreased insulin signaling. An isoflavone mixture similar to that found in serum of HF-SPI rats significantly increased in vitro osteoblast proliferation and blocked significantly reduced NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Finally, insulin/ IGF1 was able to increase both osteoblast activity and differentiation in a set of in vitro studies. These results suggest that high-fat feeding may disrupt bone development and modeling; high concentrations of NEFAs and insulin resistance occurring with high fat intake are mediators of reduced osteoblast activity and differentiation; diets high in soy protein may help prevent high dietary fat-induced bone impairments; and the molecular mechanisms underlying the SPIprotective effects involve isoflavone-induced normalization of insulin signaling in bone.-Chen, J.-R., Zhang, J., Lazarenko, O. P., Cao, J. J., Blackburn, M. L., Badger, T. M., Ronis, M. J. J. Soy protein isolates prevent loss of bone quantity associated with obesity in rats through regulation of insulin signaling in osteoblasts. © FASEB.

Jackson M.I.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Lunoe K.,Copenhagen University | Gabel-Jensen C.,Copenhagen University | Gammelgaard B.,Copenhagen University | Combs G.F.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Impaired S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent transmethylation and methylation capacity feature in diseases related to obesity or aging, and selenium (Se) metabolism is altered in these states. We tested the hypothesis that SAM metabolism is required for methylation and excretion of Se in a rat model. Four hours after selenite and periodate-oxidized adenosine (POA; an inhibitor of SAM metabolism) were administered, circulating markers of single-carbon status were unchanged, except for decreased circulating phosphatidylcholine (P<.05). In contrast, liver and kidney SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated (P<.05 for all). Concentrations of total Se were significantly elevated in both liver (P<.001) and kidney (P<.01), however the degree of accumulation in liver was significantly greater than that of kidney (P<.05). Red blood cell Se levels were decreased (P=.01). Trimethylselenonium levels were decreased in liver and kidney (P=.001 for both tissues) and Se-methyl N-acetylselenohexosamine selenosugar was decreased in liver (P=.001). Urinary output of both trimethylselenonium (P=.001) and selenosugar (P=.01) was decreased as well. Trimethylselenonium production is more inhibited by POA than is selenosugar production (P<.05). This work indicates that low molecular weight Se metabolism requires SAM-dependent methylation, and disrupting the conversion of SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine prevents conversion of selenite and intermediate metabolites to final excretory forms, suggesting implications for selenium supplementation under conditions where transmethylation is suboptimal, such as in the case of obese or aging individuals. © 2013.

Yan L.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | DeMars L.C.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effects of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient (PAI-1-/-) and wild-type mice. The high-fat diet increased the number of pulmonary metastases by 60% (p<0.01), tumor cross-sectional area by 82% (p<0.05) and tumor volume by 130% (p<0.05) compared to the AIN93G diet. Deficiency in PAI-1 reduced the number of metastases by 35% (p<0.01) compared to wildtype mice. In mice fed the high-fat diet, PAI-1 deficiency reduced tumor cross-sectional area by 52% (p<0.05) and tumor volume by 61% (p<0.05) compared to their wild-type counterparts; however, PAI-1 deficiency affected neither area nor volume in mice fed the AIN93G diet. Adipose and plasma concentrations of PAI-1 were significantly higher in high-fat fed wild-type mice than in their AIN93G-fed counterparts. Adipose and plasma PAI-1 were not detectable in PAI-1-/- mice regardless of the diet. Mice deficient in PAI-1 showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α leptin, vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and insulin compared to wild-type mice, indicating a compensatory overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin in the absence of PAI-1. We conclude that PAI-1 produced by the host, including that by adipose tissue, promotes high-fat enhanced metastasis of LLC.

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