Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center

Grand Forks, ND, United States

Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center

Grand Forks, ND, United States
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Fitzgerald J.S.,University of North Dakota | Johnson L.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Tomkinson G.,University of South Australia | Stein J.,University of North Dakota | Roemmich J.N.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2017

Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes underlying physical performance changes. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the test-retest reliability of eight jump execution variables assessed from mechanography. Thirty-two women (mean±SD: age 20.8 ± 1.3 yr) and 16 men (age 22.1 ± 1.9 yr) attended a familiarization session and two testing sessions, all one week apart. Participants performed two variations of the squat jump with squat depth self-selected and controlled using a goniometer to 80º knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was quantified as the systematic error (using effect size between jumps), random error (using coefficients of variation), and test-retest correlations (using intra-class correlation coefficients). Overall, jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, evidenced by small systematic errors (mean±95%CI: 0.2 ± 0.07), moderate random errors (mean±95%CI: 17.8 ± 3.7%), and very strong test-retest correlations (range: 0.73–0.97). Differences in random errors between controlled and self-selected protocols were negligible (mean±95%CI: 1.3 ± 2.3%). Jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, with no meaningful differences between the controlled and self-selected jump protocols. To simplify testing, a self-selected jump protocol can be used to assess force-time variables with negligible impact on measurement error. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

PubMed | University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, Indiana University, University of Louisville and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) | Year: 2017

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee indicated that magnesium was a shortfall nutrient that was underconsumed relative to the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for many Americans. Approximately 50% of Americans consume less than the EAR for magnesium, and some age groups consume substantially less. A growing body of literature from animal, epidemiologic, and clinical studies has demonstrated a varied pathologic role for magnesium deficiency that includes electrolyte, neurologic, musculoskeletal, and inflammatory disorders; osteoporosis; hypertension; cardiovascular diseases; metabolic syndrome; and diabetes. Studies have also demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is associated with several chronic diseases and that a reduced risk of these diseases is observed with higher magnesium intake or supplementation. Subclinical magnesium deficiency can exist despite the presentation of a normal status as defined within the current serum magnesium reference interval of 0.75-0.95 mmol/L. This reference interval was derived from data from NHANES I (1974), which was based on the distribution of serum magnesium in a normal population rather than clinical outcomes. What is needed is an evidenced-based serum magnesium reference interval that reflects optimal health and the current food environment and population. We present herein data from an array of scientific studies to support the perspective that subclinical deficiencies in magnesium exist, that they contribute to several chronic diseases, and that adopting a revised serum magnesium reference interval would improve clinical care and public health.

Song M.,University of Louisville | Schuschke D.A.,University of Louisville | Zhou Z.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Chen T.,University of Louisville | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a variety of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Fructose feeding has been reported to exacerbate complications of copper deficiency. In this study, we investigated whether copper deficiency plays a role in fructose-induced fatty liver and explored the potential underlying mechanism(s). Methods: Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either an adequate copper or a marginally copper deficient diet for 4 weeks. Deionized water or deionized water containing 30% fructose (w/v) was also given ad lib. Copper and iron status, hepatic injury and steatosis, and duodenum copper transporter-1 (Ctr-1) were assessed. Results: Fructose feeding further impaired copper status and led to iron overload. Liver injury and fat accumulation were significantly induced in marginal copper deficient rats exposed to fructose as evidenced by robustly increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic triglyceride. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I (CPT I) expression was significantly inhibited, whereas hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) was markedly up-regulated in marginal copper deficient rats fed with fructose. Hepatic antioxidant defense system was suppressed and lipid peroxidation was increased by marginal copper deficiency and fructose feeding. Moreover, duodenum Ctr-1 expression was significantly increased by marginal copper deficiency, whereas this increase was abrogated by fructose feeding. Conclusions: Our data suggest that high fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be due, in part, to inadequate dietary copper. Impaired duodenum Ctr-1 expression seen in fructose feeding may lead to decreased copper absorption, and subsequent copper deficiency. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the European Association for the Study of the Liver.

Raatz S.K.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Raatz S.K.,University of Minnesota | Silverstein J.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jahns L.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2013

Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

Chen J.-R.,Arkansas Childrens Nutrition Center | Chen J.-R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Zhang J.,Arkansas Childrens Nutrition Center | Zhang J.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

In both rodents and humans, excessive consumption of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol is known to result in disruption of energy metabolism and development of obesity and insulin resistance. However, how these high-fat, energydense diets affect bone development, morphology, and modeling is poorly understood. Here we show that male weanling rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet containing 45% fat and 0.5% cholesterol made with casein (HF-Cas) for 6 wk displayed a significant increase in bone marrow adiposity and insulin resistance. Substitution of casein with soy protein isolate (SPI) in the HF diet (HF-SPI) prevented these effects. Maintenance of bone quantity in the SPI-fed rats was associated with increased undercarboxylated osteocalcin secretion and altered JNK/ IRS1/Akt insulin signaling in osteoblasts. The HF-Cas group had significantly greater serum nonesterified free fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations than controls, whereas the HF-SPI prevented this increase. In vitro treatment of osteoblasts or mesenchymal stromal ST2 cells with NEFAs significantly decreased insulin signaling. An isoflavone mixture similar to that found in serum of HF-SPI rats significantly increased in vitro osteoblast proliferation and blocked significantly reduced NEFA-induced insulin resistance. Finally, insulin/ IGF1 was able to increase both osteoblast activity and differentiation in a set of in vitro studies. These results suggest that high-fat feeding may disrupt bone development and modeling; high concentrations of NEFAs and insulin resistance occurring with high fat intake are mediators of reduced osteoblast activity and differentiation; diets high in soy protein may help prevent high dietary fat-induced bone impairments; and the molecular mechanisms underlying the SPIprotective effects involve isoflavone-induced normalization of insulin signaling in bone.-Chen, J.-R., Zhang, J., Lazarenko, O. P., Cao, J. J., Blackburn, M. L., Badger, T. M., Ronis, M. J. J. Soy protein isolates prevent loss of bone quantity associated with obesity in rats through regulation of insulin signaling in osteoblasts. © FASEB.

Jackson M.I.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Lunoe K.,Copenhagen University | Gabel-Jensen C.,Copenhagen University | Gammelgaard B.,Copenhagen University | Combs G.F.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Impaired S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent transmethylation and methylation capacity feature in diseases related to obesity or aging, and selenium (Se) metabolism is altered in these states. We tested the hypothesis that SAM metabolism is required for methylation and excretion of Se in a rat model. Four hours after selenite and periodate-oxidized adenosine (POA; an inhibitor of SAM metabolism) were administered, circulating markers of single-carbon status were unchanged, except for decreased circulating phosphatidylcholine (P<.05). In contrast, liver and kidney SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated (P<.05 for all). Concentrations of total Se were significantly elevated in both liver (P<.001) and kidney (P<.01), however the degree of accumulation in liver was significantly greater than that of kidney (P<.05). Red blood cell Se levels were decreased (P=.01). Trimethylselenonium levels were decreased in liver and kidney (P=.001 for both tissues) and Se-methyl N-acetylselenohexosamine selenosugar was decreased in liver (P=.001). Urinary output of both trimethylselenonium (P=.001) and selenosugar (P=.01) was decreased as well. Trimethylselenonium production is more inhibited by POA than is selenosugar production (P<.05). This work indicates that low molecular weight Se metabolism requires SAM-dependent methylation, and disrupting the conversion of SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine prevents conversion of selenite and intermediate metabolites to final excretory forms, suggesting implications for selenium supplementation under conditions where transmethylation is suboptimal, such as in the case of obese or aging individuals. © 2013.

Gammelgaard B.,Copenhagen University | Jackson M.I.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Gabel-Jensen C.,Copenhagen University
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

The aim of this review is to present and evaluate the present knowledge of which selenium species are available to the general population in the form of food and common supplements and how these species are metabolized in mammals. The overview of the selenium sources takes a horizontal approach, which encompasses identification of new metabolites in yeast and food of plant and animal origin, whereas the survey of the mammalian metabolism takes a horizontal as well as a vertical approach. The vertical approach encompasses studies on dynamic conversions of selenium compounds within cells, tissues or whole organisms. New and improved sample preparation, separation and detection methods are evaluated from an analytical chemical perspective to cover the progress in horizontal speciation, whereas the analytical methods for the vertical speciation and the interpretations of the results are evaluated from a biological angle as well. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Zeng H.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Cao J.J.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Combs Jr. G.F.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
Nutrients | Year: 2012

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which Se supports these cellular processes can lead to a better understanding of the role of this nutrient in normal bone metabolism. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the molecular functions of Se relevant to bone health. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Yan L.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | DeMars L.C.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

This study investigated the effects of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient (PAI-1-/-) and wild-type mice. The high-fat diet increased the number of pulmonary metastases by 60% (p<0.01), tumor cross-sectional area by 82% (p<0.05) and tumor volume by 130% (p<0.05) compared to the AIN93G diet. Deficiency in PAI-1 reduced the number of metastases by 35% (p<0.01) compared to wildtype mice. In mice fed the high-fat diet, PAI-1 deficiency reduced tumor cross-sectional area by 52% (p<0.05) and tumor volume by 61% (p<0.05) compared to their wild-type counterparts; however, PAI-1 deficiency affected neither area nor volume in mice fed the AIN93G diet. Adipose and plasma concentrations of PAI-1 were significantly higher in high-fat fed wild-type mice than in their AIN93G-fed counterparts. Adipose and plasma PAI-1 were not detectable in PAI-1-/- mice regardless of the diet. Mice deficient in PAI-1 showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α leptin, vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and insulin compared to wild-type mice, indicating a compensatory overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin in the absence of PAI-1. We conclude that PAI-1 produced by the host, including that by adipose tissue, promotes high-fat enhanced metastasis of LLC.

Zeng H.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center | Wu M.,Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2015

Data indicate that methylselenol is a critical selenium (Se) metabolite for anticancer activity in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that oral dosing methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a methylselenol precursor, inhibits the growth of colon cancer xenografts in C57BL/6 mice fed a Se adequate diet. In this study, MSeA supplementation was given by an oral dose (0, 1, or 3 mg/kg body weight) regimen. MSeA increased Se content of liver, kidney, muscle, stomach (w/intestine) and plasma, and elevated blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. However, MSeA did not change lean/fat body composition, food consumption, levels of plasma leptin/adiponectin, and body weight gain. MSeA (3 mg/kg body weight) inhibited tumor growth up to 61% when compared to the control group, and this inhibition was associated with a reduction of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin 6 (IL6) level but elevated blood GPx activities. In addition, MSeA (1 mg/kg body weight) increased the activation of caspase-3, a major apoptotic enzyme, in tumor tissues. Taken together, our MSeA oral dosing regimen was at safe levels; and high blood GPx activities, caspase-3 activities in tumor tissue and a reduction of plasma TNF/IL6 level, play critical roles in inhibiting colon tumor growth in an immune-competent C57BL/6 mouse model. © This article not subject to US copyright law.

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