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Phoenix, AZ, United States

Grand Canyon University is a private, for-profit Christian university located in Phoenix, Arizona, United States. GCU was founded in 1949 as a non-profit liberal arts college, and was purchased by Grand Canyon Education, Inc. in February 2004.Grand Canyon University is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and provides campus-based as well as online postsecondary education services focused on graduate and undergraduate degree programs in education, liberal arts, business, and healthcare through its eight colleges. Wikipedia.


Mobley M.J.,Grand Canyon University | Mobley M.J.,Arizona State University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Previous papers have presented an alternative picture for photon diffraction based on a distribution of photon paths through quantized momentum exchange with probabilities defined at the location of scattering, not the point of detection. This contrasted with the picture from classical optical wave theory that describes diffraction in terms of the Huygens-Fresnel principle and sums the phased contributions of electromagnetic waves at the location of detection to determine probabilities. This alternative picture was termed "Momentum Exchange Theory (MET)," replacing the concept of Huygens wavelets with photon scattering (positive and negative dispersions) through momentum exchange with the scattering lattice. MET assumes a momentum representation for diffracted particles and has been applied to several different optical diffraction experimental configurations. Straight edge diffraction has been a particularly revealing experimental configuration as it provides significant clues to the geometric parameters controlling exchange probabilities. Diffraction by an opaque disc is examined to provide further insight to negative (attractive) dispersions. This analysis indicates that the "diffraction force" is an integration of momentum exchange field interactions to derive an exchange probability at interaction points along the photon path-resembling aspects of the QED path integral formulation for particle interactions. © 2015 SPIE. Source


Leip T.,Grand Canyon University
CrossTalk | Year: 2011

We are often told that process improvement activities should be managed as a project, but seldom do we hear that they should also be managed as a product. Key decisions ranging from high level strategies to the deployment of improvements can become much simpler when we view the approach of our process improvement work in the same way we would for the development of more conventional software products. This article discusses six examples of this concept that will help you not only simplify process improvement decisions, but improve the odds of success in your process improvement activities. Source


Mobley M.J.,Grand Canyon University | Mobley M.J.,Arizona State University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Hestenes has presented an integration of Schrödinger's zitterbewegung with the spin matrices of the Dirac equation, suggesting the electron can be modeled by a rapidly rotating dipole moment and a frequency related to the de Broglie frequency. He presents an elegant spacetime algebra that provides a reformulation of the Dirac equation that incorporates these real spin characteristics. A similar heuristic model for quantum particles has been derived by this author from a different, quasi-classical premise: That the most fundamental subcomponents of quantum particles all travel at a constant speed of light. Time is equated with the spatial displacement of these subcomponents-the speed of light is the speed of time. This approach suggests a means of integrating special relativity and quantum mechanics with the same concept of time. The relativistic transformation of spinning quantum particles create the appearance of additional, compactified spatial dimensions that can be correlated with the complex phase of the spin matrices as in the Dirac formalism. This paper further examines the convergence on such new models for quantum particles built on this rapid motion of particle subcomponents. The modeling leverages a string-like heuristic for particle subcomponents and a revised description for the wave-like properties of particles. This examination provides useful insights to the real spatial geometries and interactions of electrons and photons. © 2015 SPIE. Source


Mobley M.J.,Grand Canyon University | Mobley M.J.,Arizona State University
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

An alternative picture for photon diffraction had been proposed describing diffraction by a distribution of photon paths determined through a Fourier analysis of a scattering lattice. The momentum exchange probabilities are defined at the location of scattering, not the point of detection. This contrasts with the picture from classical optical wave theory that describes diffraction in terms of the Huygens-Fresnel principle and sums the phased contributions of electromagnetic waves to determine probabilities at detection. This revised picture, termed "Momentum Exchange Theory," can be derived through a momentum representation of the diffraction formulas of optical wave theory, replacing the concept of Huygens wavelets with photon scattering through momentum exchange with the lattice. Starting with the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld and Fresnel-Kirchoff formulas, this paper demonstrates that diffraction results from positive and negative photon dispersions through virtual particle exchange probabilities that depend on the lattice geometry and are constrained by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The positive and negative increments of momentum exchange exhibit harmonic probability distributions characteristic of a "random walk," dependent on the distance of momentum exchange. The analysis produces a simplified prediction for the observed intensity profile for a collimated laser beam diffracted by a long, straight edge that lends conceptual support for this alternative picture. © 2013 SPIE. Source


Simberloff D.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Souza L.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Nunez M.A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Barrios-Garcia M.N.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | And 2 more authors.
Ecology | Year: 2012

The argument that the threat posed by introduced species is overblown is often buttressed by the observation that native species sometimes also become invasive. An examination of the literature on plant invasions in the United States shows that six times more nonnative species have been termed invasive than native species, and that a member of the naturalized nonnative pool is 40 times more likely than a native species to be perceived as invasive. In the great majority of instances in which a native plant species is seen as invasive, the invasion is associated with an anthropogenic disturbance, especially changed fire or hydrological regime, livestock grazing, and changes wrought by an introduced species. These results suggest that natives are significantly less likely than nonnatives to be problematic for local ecosystems. © 2012 by the Ecological Society of America. Source

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