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Ruud A.K.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Windju S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Windju S.,Graminor AS | Belova T.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: The effect of the SnTox3–Snn3 interaction was documented for the first time under natural infection at the adult plant stage in the field. Co-segregating SNP markers were identified. Abstract: Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen of wheat, causing Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) affecting both the leaf and glume. P. nodorum is the major leaf blotch pathogen on spring wheat in Norway. Resistance to the disease is quantitative, but several host-specific interactions between necrotrophic effectors (NEs) and host sensitivity (Snn) genes have been identified, playing a major role at the seedling stage. However, the effect of these interactions in the field under natural infection has not been investigated. In the present study, we saturated the genetic map of the recombinant inbred (RI) population SHA3/CBRD × Naxos using the Illumina 90 K SNP chip. The population had previously been evaluated for segregation of SNB susceptibility in field trials. Here, we infiltrated the population with the purified NEs SnToxA, SnTox1 and SnTox3, and mapped the Snn3 locus on 5BS based on sensitivity segregation and SNP marker data. We also conducted inoculation and culture filtrate (CF) infiltration experiments on the population with four selected P. nodorum isolates from Norway and North America. Remapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for field resistance showed that the SnTox3–Snn3 interaction could explain 24% of the phenotypic variation in the field, and more than 51% of the variation in seedling inoculations. To our knowledge, this is the first time the effect of this interaction has been documented at the adult plant stage under natural infection in the field. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Alm V.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Alm V.,University of Oslo | Busso C.S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Busso C.S.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for frost and drought tolerance, and winter survival in the field, were mapped in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) and compared with corresponding traits in Triticeae and rice to study co-location with putatively orthologous QTLs and known abiotic stress tolerance genes. The genomes of grass species are highly macrosyntenic; however, the Festuca/Lolium and Triticeae homoeologous chromosomes 4 and 5 show major structural differences that is especially interesting in comparative genomics of frost tolerance. The locations of two frost tolerance/winter survival QTLs on Festuca chromosome 5F correspond most likely to the Fr-A1 and Fr-A2 loci on wheat homoeologous group 5A chromosomes. A QTL for long-term drought tolerance on chromosome 3F (syntenic with rice 1) support evidence from introgression of Festuca genome segments onto homoeologous Lolium chromosomes (3L) that this genome region is an excellent source of tolerance towards drought stress. The coincident location of several stress tolerance QTL in Festuca with QTL and genes in Triticeae species, notably dehydrins, CBF transcription factors and vernalisation response genes indicate the action of structural or regulatory genes conserved across evolutionarily distant species. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Graminor AS and University of Aarhus
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

Low temperature is one of the abiotic stresses seriously affecting the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and freezing tolerance is a complex trait of major agronomical importance in northern and central Europe. Understanding the genetic control of freezing tolerance would aid in the development of cultivars of perennial ryegrass with improved adaptation to frost. The plant material investigated in this study was an experimental synthetic population derived from pair-crosses among five European perennial ryegrass genotypes, representing adaptations to a range of climatic conditions across Europe. A total number of 80 individuals (24 of High frost [HF]; 29 of Low frost [LF], and 27 of Unselected [US]) from the second generation of the two divergently selected populations and an unselected (US) control population were genotyped using 278 genome-wide SNPs derived from perennial ryegrass transcriptome sequences. Our studies investigated the genetic diversity among the three experimental populations by analysis of molecular variance and population structure, and determined that the HF and LF populations are very divergent after selection for freezing tolerance, whereas the HF and US populations are more similar. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay varied across the seven chromosomes and the conspicuous pattern of LD between the HF and LF population confirmed their divergence in freezing tolerance. Furthermore, two F st outlier methods; finite island model (fdist) by LOSITAN and hierarchical structure model using ARLEQUIN, both detected six loci under directional selection. These outlier loci are most probably linked to genes involved in freezing tolerance, cold adaptation, and abiotic stress. These six candidate loci under directional selection for freezing tolerance might be potential marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved freezing tolerance.


Bartos J.,Institute of Experimental Botany | Sandve S.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kolliker R.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon | Kopecky D.,Institute of Experimental Botany | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Species belonging to the Festuca-Lolium complex are important forage and turf species and as such, have been studied intensively. However, their out-crossing nature and limited availability of molecular markers make genetic studies difficult. Here, we report on saturation of F. pratensis and L. multiflorum genetic maps using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers and the DArTFest array. The 530 and 149 DArT markers were placed on genetic maps of L. multiflorum and F. pratensis, respectively, with overlap of 20 markers, which mapped in both species. The markers were sequenced and comparative sequence analysis was performed between L. multiflorum, rice and Brachypodium. The utility of the DArTFest array was then tested on a Festulolium population FuRs0357 in an integrated analysis using the DArT marker map positions to study associations between markers and freezing tolerance. Ninety six markers were significantly associated with freezing tolerance and five of these markers were genetically mapped to chromosomes 2, 4 and 7. Three genomic loci associated with freezing tolerance in the FuRs0357 population co-localized with chromosome segments and QTLs previously indentified to be associated with freezing tolerance. The present work clearly confirms the potential of the DArTFest array in genetic studies of the Festuca-Lolium complex. The annotated DArTFest array resources could accelerate further studies and improvement of desired traits in Festuca-Lolium species. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Lillemo M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Reitan L.,Graminor AS | Bjornstad A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

With 4 figures and 4 tables Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most important cereal crop in Norway. The northernmost area of barley cultivation is located in Trøndelag, which is a geographically confined agricultural area in central Norway (63-65°N). The objectives of this study were to study the barley yields in this region over the time period 1946-2008, and to estimate the impact of genetic improvements. The analysis was based on the official yield statistics and historical data from a total of 890 variety trials conducted in the region. During the period 1946-2008, an overall yield increase of 70% could be observed in farmers' fields, of which 48% could be attributed to the introduction of new varieties. Splitting the studied time frame into the three subperiods 1946-1960, 1960-1980 and 1980-2008, new varieties accounted for 29%, 43% and 78% of the observed yield increase, respectively. As farmers have responded to environmental levies on fertilizers and other agricultural policy measures with less intensive production practices, the continued yield increase in barley has relied heavily on plant breeding. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Rudi H.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sandve S.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Opseth L.M.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Larsen A.,Graminor AS | Rognli O.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Plant Science | Year: 2011

Studies of differential gene expression between cold acclimated (CA) and non-cold acclimated (NA) plants yield insight into how plants prepare for cold stress at the transcriptional level. Furthermore genes involved in the cold acclimation process are good candidate loci for genetic variation in frost tolerance and winter survival. In this study we combine different approaches to try to decode the genetics of cold acclimation and frost tolerance in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds). An EST library of cold acclimation responsive genes was established by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), and a microarray experiment was used to identify gene expression differences between high and low frost tolerance genotypes in response to cold acclimation. Many genes known to be involved in CA in other species were confirmed to be involved in CA in F. pratensis, however, 18% of the ESTs did not show significant homology to any database proteins. Seven genes were found to be differentially expressed (>2-fold) between high and low frost tolerance genotypes. Two of these genes, FpQM and FpTPT, represent interesting candidate genes for frost tolerance in perennial forage grasses. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Fjellheim S.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Tanhuanpaa P.,Mtt Agrifood Research Finland | Marum P.,Graminor AS | Manninen O.,Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd | Rognli O.A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Crop Science | Year: 2015

Genebanks around the world represent a large source of genetic variation in both wild and crop species and may prove invaluable in the future. However, much of this is uncharacterized and this hampers both management and utilization, specifically of wild species and minor crops. In this paper we study a large genebank collection of wild populations of the cool-season forage grass timothy (Phleum pratense L.) to investigate different methods for characterization and their implications for conservation. Populations covering the entire geographic distribution range of timothy were analyzed for simple-sequence repeats (SSRs), chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence, and phenotypic variation in 14 morphological and phenological characters. The east–west distribution of two major cpDNA haplotypes indicates a classic postglacial expansion pattern, with most populations originating from two refugia. No signs of geographic structuring of SSR variation were evident, indicating a large inherent effective population size, possibly in combination with extensive gene flow. In contrast to the lack of geographic structuring of variation in neutral markers, phenotypic variation was clearly structured, indicating natural selection and local adaptation. This study demonstrate the importance of using multiple characterization systems—both molecular and phenotypic—for assessing diversity in genebank collections, specifically when it comes to evaluating adaptive potential. © Crop Science Society of America.


Elameen A.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | Elameen A.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Larsen A.,Graminor AS | Klemsdal S.S.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | And 5 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2011

In Tanzania sweet potato ranks as the third most important crop after cassava and potato. We studied the phenotypic diversity of morphological plant and root descriptor traits in accessions of the sweet potato germplasm collection of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro and Sugarcane Research Institute, Kibaha, Tanzania, using phenotypic characters. A total number of 105 sweet potato accessions of different geographic origins were studied in field trials of The Sugarcane Research Institute at Kibaha Tanzania, and data were recorded for 27 phenotypic characters. Estimates of pair-wise phenotypic similarities using the Manhattan coefficient varied from 0.023 to 0. 814, with a mean of 0.285. Cluster analysis was conducted using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO). The clustering of phenotypic data resulted in a dendrogram which was discordant with geographic origin and AFLP data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant variation among the accessions for 21 out of the 27 characters studied. Phenotypic analyses revealed a wider range of variability than AFLP analyses. Comparison of molecular and phenotypic data using the Mantel test showed a very low correlation (r2 = 0.0007). Molecular and phenotypic classifications are discordant, and both are necessary to classify the germplasm correctly and to clarify genetic relationships among sweet potato accessions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Patent
Graminor AS | Date: 2012-12-04

A new and distinct Pyrus communis pear tree variety named CELINA particularly characterized by its green-yellow fruit with a red blush, pyriform/straight to convex fruit shape, fine fruit texture, medium fruit size, high yield, early fruit maturation, and resistance to scab.


Tahir I.I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Nybom H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ahmadi-Afzadi M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Roen K.,Graminor AS | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Horticultural Science | Year: 2015

Each year, fungal storage rots cause serious losses in the apple industry. The problem is especially prominent in production systems with little or no use of pre- or postharvest fungicides. Consequently, a high level of tolerance to storage rots is very desirable. A set of 81 apple cultivars were studied in two different production areas (Nj0s in Norway and Balsgard in Sweden), during two seasons (2012 and 2013), to investigate genetically determined susceptibility to blue mold, Penicillium expansion. Lesion diameter, measured on symptoms developing after artificial inoculation with this pathogen and cold storage for 6-12 weeks, and decay index, calculated as lesion diameter divided by number of weeks in storage, varied significantly among cultivars. Associations between disease evaluation data and different fruit characteristics were also investigated. Decay index was negatively correlated with harvest date, estimated as number of days since full bloom, and fruit firmness at harvest. A positive correlation was instead found between decay index and amount of fruit softening during storage. These results provide data about genetically determined level of resistance to blue mold for apple cultivars adapted to a cool climate, and will be valuable for further research on the genetic control of resistance, as well as for choice of breeding material. © ISHS 2015.

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