Grains Research and Development Corporation GRDC

Kingstone, Australia

Grains Research and Development Corporation GRDC

Kingstone, Australia

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Potter T.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Potter T.,Yeruga Crop Research | Burton W.,Victorian DPI | Edwards J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 6 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2016

Canola breeding in Australia began in the early 1970s with the first cultivars being released in the late 1970s. Thirty-four non-herbicide-tolerant canola cultivars, released in Australia between 1978 and 2012, were evaluated for improvements in yield, quality, blackleg resistance and adaptation to Australian environments. The cultivars were sown at three sites in 2008 and one site in 2014. In addition, blackleg susceptibility was assessed in two independent blackleg experiments in 2008. Yield improvement averaged 21.8kgha-1year-1 (1.25% year-1) but ranged from 8 to 39.1kgha-1year-1 at the lowest to the highest yielding sites, respectively. Although the yield gain shown by our study was for conventional canola only, the different herbicide-tolerant types are derived by incorporating the herbicide tolerance genes into Australian germplasm and so the rate of genetic gain would be expected to be similar for all herbicide tolerance types. Oil and protein concentrations have increased by 0.09%year-1 and 0.05%year-1, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentration was reduced to between 7 and 16moles per gram of meal by the mid-1990s. Cultivars released before 2002 all had low to moderate resistance to the blackleg isolates present in the fields during the experimental period but more recent releases had improved survival under heavy blackleg pressure due to the incorporation of additional or different resistance genes. The data suggests that at least 25% of the yield improvement achieved by the breeding programs over 30 years was associated with improved blackleg resistance and the remainder with gains in other aspects of potential grain yield. The private breeding companies in Australia will need to continue to produce cultivars with high yield potential and deploy blackleg resistance genes wisely in order to maintain the yield improvements required to remain competitive in global markets. © CSIRO 2016.


PubMed | Aberystwyth University, The John Bingham Laboratory, University of Western Australia, University of Missouri and 19 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant biotechnology journal | Year: 2016

Agriculture is now facing the perfect storm of climate change, increasing costs of fertilizer and rising food demands from a larger and wealthier human population. These factors point to a global food deficit unless the efficiency and resilience of crop production is increased. The intensification of agriculture has focused on improving production under optimized conditions, with significant agronomic inputs. Furthermore, the intensive cultivation of a limited number of crops has drastically narrowed the number of plant species humans rely on. A new agricultural paradigm is required, reducing dependence on high inputs and increasing crop diversity, yield stability and environmental resilience. Genomics offers unprecedented opportunities to increase crop yield, quality and stability of production through advanced breeding strategies, enhancing the resilience of major crops to climate variability, and increasing the productivity and range of minor crops to diversify the food supply. Here we review the state of the art of genomic-assisted breeding for the most important staples that feed the world, and how to use and adapt such genomic tools to accelerate development of both major and minor crops with desired traits that enhance adaptation to, or mitigate the effects of climate change.


Tan M.-K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | El-Bouhssini M.,Rabat Institute | Emebiri L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Wildman O.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2015

The HfrDrd gene has been reported to be induced specifically in the wheat’s defence response to Hessian fly larvae and is not a general stress-responsive gene. The gene is located on chromosome 7DS with a homeologue on 7AS. In this study, two SNPs in the gene that result in amino acid substitutions in the dirigent-like protein have been identified. Both are C/T polymorphisms at nt position 86 and 143 in exon 1 of the gene. The first SNP (from 5′ end) causes an alanine-to-valine substitution. The second is a serine-to-leucine change and is located in the conserved dirigent domain. Both ‘T’ nucleotide SNPs are characteristic of the Hessian fly-resistant genotype, Iris (JX501668, JX501669). Only SNP 143 has been found to be significantly associated with Hessian fly resistance. One hundred and seventy-one Australian cultivars screened were susceptible and have the ‘C’ nucleotide at SNP 143. The ‘T’ SNP at nt 143 was found in thirteen resistant cultivars, and the heterozygous state was identified in four other resistant cultivars. This study has identified other resistant genotypes which do not carry the ‘T’ nucleotide at nt 143 in the gene. Their resistance mechanism possibly involves other Hessian fly-response (Hfr) genes. SNP 143 will be useful for deployment in developing varieties with the resistant HfrDrd allele. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Toumi F.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Toumi F.,Ghent University | Waeyenberge L.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Waeyenberge L.,Ghent University | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Twelve Heterodera species are considered of major economic significance in cereals, of which Heterodera avenae, H. latipons and H. filipjevi are the most important. Precise identification and quantification of these nematodes are necessary to develop effective integrated pest control. This study reports on the use of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene to develop qPCR assays that could be used for the identification and quantification of H. avenae and H. latipons. Two qPCR primer sets, each comprising two primers and a probe, were designed for each of both species. After optimization, the qPCR assays using a single second-stage juvenile (J2) were able to identify and quantify H. avenae and H. latipons. Their specificity was confirmed by the lack of amplification of J2 of 14 other Heterodera species. A qPCR using DNA extracted from 120 J2 + eggs of H. avenae and H. latipons resulted in steady Ct-values (Ct = 22.33 ± 0.1 and Ct = 21.83 ± 0.12, respectively). Dilution series of DNA extracted from 120 J2 + eggs of the two species were made. The assays for both species resulted in a standard curve showing a highly significant linearity between the Ct-values and the dilution rates (R2 = 0.99; slope = −3.03 and R2 = 0.99; slope = −3.28 for H. avenae and H. latipons, respectively). The two qPCR assays provide a sensitive and valid tool for rapid detection and quantification of the two species whether they occur alone or in mixtures with other species. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Toumi F.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | Toumi F.,Ghent University | Hassan G.,General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research | Waeyenberge L.,Belgium Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection | Year: 2015

Cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) are important plant-parasitic nematodes of wheat and barley, and exist in most of the cereal growing regions of the world. As there is limited information on the nature and distribution of CCN species in Syria, a survey was conducted in north-eastern Syria to assess the distribution of CCN in the main wheat and barley growing areas. In the summer of 2009, a total of 167 composite soil samples were collected from 167 wheat and barley fields. Cysts were extracted from soil using the Fenwick can technique, then quantified and identified up to the species level by using both morphological and molecular methods. The study revealed that 62% of the fields were infested with the three Heterodera species: H. avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons. However, the most prevalent species was H. latipons, which was present in 76% of the infested samples, while it occurred alone in 67% of those samples. Heterodera avenae was detected singly in 20% of the samples, while 11% consisted of mixed populations with other species. Heterodera filipjevi was never detected alone; it was found mixed with H. avenae and/or H. latipons in 9% of the samples. The high number of extracted cysts (up to 116 cysts × 200 g–1 of soil) is most likely related to the monoculture practiced in that region and the fact that growers are unaware of the existence of resistant varieties. © Eugen Ulmer KG, Stuttgart.


Tadesse W.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ogbonnaya F.C.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ogbonnaya F.C.,Grains Research and Development Corporation GRDC | Jighly A.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011-2012) at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT) markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W) ranged from 13.6-16.1% and 217.6-375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B), wPt4680 (4A), wPt3509 (5A), wPt8183 (6B), and wPt0298 (2D) were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA's International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations. © 2015 Tadesse et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Tadesse W.,International Agricultural Research Center for Dry Areas | Ogbonnaya F.C.,Grains Research and Development Corporation GRDC | Jighly A.,International Agricultural Research Center for Dry Areas | Nazari K.,International Agricultural Research Center for Dry Areas | And 2 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Yellow (stripe) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst), is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) all over the world, particularly in the Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) region. Host plant resistance is the most economical and environment friendly approach to combating wheat rusts through the deployment of resistant cultivars. In this study, we report findings from an association mapping (AM) study of resistance to Pst in 167 facultative/winter elite wheat genotypes. The genotypes were evaluated for resistance to yellow rust (YR) at the adult plant stage and other agronomic traits for 2 yr (2011-2012) at ICARDA field station, Tel Hadya, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3051 diversity array technology (DArT) markers of which 1586 were of known chromosome positions. Out of the 167 genotypes evaluated for YR resistance, 65 genotypes (38.9%) were resistant, 20 genotypes (12%) were moderately resistant, 30 genotypes (18%) were moderately susceptible, and 52 genotypes (31.1%) were susceptible. Elite genotypes with high yield potential and YR resistance were identified and have been distributed to the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the respective countries. Further, AM analysis using a mixed linear model (MLM), corrected for population structure and kinship relatedness and adjusted for false discovery rate (FDR), identified five genomic regions located on wheat chromosomes 2BL, 4BS, 6AS, 6BL, and 7BL which are significantly associated with genes conferring resistance to YR. The loci located on chromosome 4BS appeared to be a novel quantitative trait loci (QTL). These loci may be useful for choosing parents and incorporating new YR resistance genes into locally adapted wheat cultivars. © Crop Science Society of America.


Joukhadar R.,University of Aleppo | El-Bouhssini M.,The International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas | Jighly A.,The International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas | Ogbonnaya F.C.,Grains Research and Development Corporation GRDC
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Insect pests cause substantial damage to wheat production in many wheat-producing areas of the world. Amongst these, Hessian fly (HF), Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Sunn pest (SP), wheat stem saw fly (WSSF) and cereal leaf beetle (CLB) are the most damaging in the areas where they occur. Historically, the use of resistance genes in wheat has been the most effective, environmentally friendly, and cost-efficient approach to controlling pest infestations. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide association study with 2518 Diversity Arrays Technology markers which were polymorphic on 134 wheat genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to the five most destructive pests (HF, RWA, SP, WSSF and CLB) of wheat, using mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with population structure as a covariate. We identified 26 loci across the wheat genome linked to genes conferring resistance to these pests, of which 20 are potentially novel quantitative trait loci with significance values which ranged between 5 × 10-3 and 10-11. We used an in silico approach to identify probable candidate genes at some of the genomic regions and found that their functions varied from defense response with transferase activity to several genes of unknown function. Identification of potentially new loci associated with resistances to pests would contribute to more rapid marker-aided incorporation of new and diverse genes to develop new varieties with improved resistance against these pests. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Okechukwu E.C.,University of Nigeria | Agbo C.U.,University of Nigeria | Uguru M.I.,University of Nigeria | Ogbonnaya F.C.,Grains Research and Development Corporation GRDC
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016

Breeding for heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a serious global concern due to the increasing threats of high temperature. Thus, 189 wheat genotypes coded from 1 to 189 were evaluated for heat tolerance in normal and late seasons in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Tel Hadya, Syria, from 2010 to 2012. The experiments were laid out in alpha lattice designs with two replicates. Data collected on the grain yield, days to heading and maturity, grain filling duration and plant height were subjected to restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis for generation of the best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs). Very highly significant effects (p ≤ 0.001) of genotype, season, and genotype by season interaction on grain yield and other traits were obtained. The grain yield and other traits performance of the wheat genotypes were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the normal season than in the late season. Genotype 148 was among the 30 top grain yielding genotypes in all the environments, while genotypes 172 and 124 were among the top yielding genotypes in all the environments except in late season 2. The relative heat tolerance of the genotypes ranged from -33.69% to -77.95% in late season 1 vs. normal season 1 and -65.28% to -95.83% in late season 2 vs. normal season 2. The high variability obtained in the germplasm underlies sufficient genetic variability for improving heat tolerance in bread wheat. © 2016, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA. All rights reserved.


Ghavami F.,North Dakota State University | Elias E.M.,North Dakota State University | Mamidi S.,North Dakota State University | Mergoum M.,North Dakota State University | And 4 more authors.
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2011

Sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat are mostly restricted to Chinese hexaploid genotypes. The effort to incorporate the resistance from hexaploid wheat or wild relatives to cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum Desf.) have not been successful in providing resistance to the level of the donor parents. In this study, we used 171 BC1F6 and 169 BC1F7 lines derived from crossing of four Tunisian tetraploid sources of resistance (Tun7, Tun18, Tun34, Tun36) with durum cultivars 'Ben,' 'Maier,' 'Lebsock,' and 'Mountrail' for association studies. The Tun18 and Tun7 FHB resistances were found to be comparable to the best hexaploid wheat sources. A new significant QTL for FHB resistance was identified on the long arm of chromosome 5B (Qfhs.ndsu-5BL) with both association and classical QTL mapping analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks extending up to 40 cM were evident in these populations. The linear mixed model considering the structure (Q or P) and the kinship matrix (KT) estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was identified as the best for association studies in a mixture of wheat populations from a breeding program. The results of association mapping analysis also demonstrated a region on the short arm of chromosome 3B as potentially linked to FHB resistance. This region is in proximity of major FHB resistance gene fhb1 reported in hexaploid wheat. A possibility of having susceptibility or suppressor of resistance gene(s) on durum wheat chromosome 2A was further confirmed in this material, explaining the problem in developing resistant genotypes without counter selection against this region. © 2011 Ghavami et al.

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