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Anithakumari A.M.,Graduate School Experimental Plant science | Tang J.,Keygene NV | van Eck H.J.,Wageningen University | Visser R.G.F.,Wageningen University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2010

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most abundant type of genetic variation that can be used as molecular markers. The SNPs that are hidden in sequence databases can be unlocked using bioinformatic tools. For efficient application of these SNPs, the sequence set should be error-free as much as possible, targeting single loci and suitable for the SNP scoring platform of choice. We have developed a pipeline to effectively mine SNPs from public EST databases with or without quality information using QualitySNP software, select reliable SNP and prepare the loci for analysis on the Illumina GoldenGate genotyping platform. The applicability of the pipeline was demonstrated using publicly available potato EST data, genotyping individuals from two diploid mapping populations and subsequently mapping the SNP markers (putative genes) in both populations. Over 7000 reliable SNPs were identified that met the criteria for genotyping on the GoldenGate platform. Of the 384 SNPs on the SNP array approximately 12% dropped out. For the two potato mapping populations 165 and 185 SNPs segregating SNP loci could be mapped on the respective genetic maps, illustrating the effectiveness of our pipeline for SNP selection and validation. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Zhao C.,Plant Research International | Zhao C.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Zhao C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Waalwijk C.,Plant Research International | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of RNA-Seq to improve gene annotations and to identify alternative splicing and RNA editing in F. graminearum. Results: We identified and revised 655 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of intron predictions, intron splice sites and prediction of novel introns. 231 genes were identified with two or more alternative splice variants, mostly due to intron retention. Interestingly, the expression ratios between different transcript isoforms appeared to be developmentally regulated. Surprisingly, no RNA editing was identified in F. graminearum. Moreover, 2459 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) were identified and our analysis indicates that many of these could be missed genes. Finally, we identified the 5' UTR and/or 3' UTR sequences of 7666 genes. A number of representative novel gene models and alternatively spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the generated amplicons. Conclusions: We have developed novel and efficient strategies to identify alternatively spliced genes and incorrect gene models based on RNA-Seq data. Our study identified hundreds of alternatively spliced genes in F. graminearum and for the first time indicated that alternative splicing is developmentally regulated in filamentous fungi. In addition, hundreds of incorrect predicted gene models were identified and revised and thousands of nTARs were discovered in our study, which will be helpful for the future genomic and transcriptomic studies in F. graminearum. © 2013 Zhao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Acharjee A.,Graduate School Experimental Plant science | Acharjee A.,Wageningen University | Kloosterman B.,Wageningen University | de Vos R.C.H.,Center for Biosystems Genomics | And 7 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2011

In the post-genomic era, high-throughput technologies have led to data collection in fields like transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics and, as a result, large amounts of data have become available. However, the integration of these ∼omics data sets in relation to phenotypic traits is still problematic in order to advance crop breeding. We have obtained population-wide gene expression and metabolite (LC-MS) data from tubers of a diploid potato population and present a novel approach to study the various ∼omics datasets to allow the construction of networks integrating gene expression, metabolites and phenotypic traits. We used Random Forest regression to select subsets of the metabolites and transcripts which show association with potato tuber flesh color and enzymatic discoloration. Network reconstruction has led to the integration of known and uncharacterized metabolites with genes associated with the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. We show that this approach enables the construction of meaningful networks with regard to known and unknown components and metabolite pathways. © 2011. Source

Pavan S.,University of Bari | Pavan S.,Wageningen University | Schiavulli A.,Graduate School Experimental Plant science | Appiano M.,University of Bari | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew resistance source. Genetic and phytopathological features of er1 resistance are similar to those of barley, Arabidopsis, and tomato mlo powdery mildew resistance, which is caused by the loss of function of specific members of the MLO gene family. Here, we describe the obtainment of a novel er1 resistant line by experimental mutagenesis with the alkylating agent diethyl sulfate. This line was found to carry a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PsMLO1 gene sequence, predicted to result in premature termination of translation and a non-functional protein. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed on the mutation site and shown to be fully co-segregating with resistance in F2 individuals. Sequencing of PsMLO1 from three powdery mildew resistant cultivars also revealed the presence of loss-of-function mutations. Taken together, results reported in this study strongly indicate the identity between er1 and mlo resistances and are expected to be of great breeding importance for the development of resistant cultivars via marker-assisted selection. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Anithakumari A.M.,Graduate School Experimental Plant science | Nataraja K.N.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Visser R.G.F.,Graduate School Experimental Plant science | van der Linden C.G.,Graduate School Experimental Plant science
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Potato is the third most important staple food crop in terms of consumption, yet it is relatively susceptible to yield loss because of drought. As a first step towards improving drought tolerance in this crop, we set out to identify the genetic basis for drought tolerance in a diploid potato mapping population. Experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions in two successive years by recording four physiological, seven growth and three yield parameters under stress and recovery treatments. Genotypes showed significant variation for drought and recovery responses. The traits measured had low to moderately high heritabilities (ranging from 22 to 74 %). A total of 47 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which 28 were drought-specific, 17 under recovery treatment and two under well-watered conditions. The majority of these growth and yield QTL co-localized with a QTL for maturity on chromosome 5. Four QTL for δ 13C, three for chlorophyll content and one for chlorophyll fluorescence (F v/F m) were found to co-localize with yield and other growth trait QTL identified on other chromosomes. Several multi-year and multi-treatment QTL were detected and QTL × environment interaction was found for δ 13C. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive QTL study on water deficit and recovery potential in potato. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

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