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Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Hubbard L.L.N.,Graduate Program in Immunology
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients are susceptible to infection despite cellular reconstitution. In a murine model of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we previously reported that BMT mice have impaired host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia due to overproduction of (PG)E 2 in lung. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is an effector in the PGE 2 signaling pathway that negatively regulates alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and bacterial killing. Therefore, examined whether overproduction of PGE 2 after BMT inhibits AM host defense by up-regulating PTEN phosphatase activity. We found that PTEN activity is elevated in BMT AMs in response to increased PGE 2 signaling and that pharmacological inhibition of PTEN activity in BMT AMs fully restores phagocytosis of serum-opsonized P. aeruginosa but only partially restores phagocytosis of nonopsonized P. aeruginosa. In wild-type mice transplanted with myeloid-specific conditional PTEN knockout (PTEN CKO) bone marrow, bacterial clearance is improved after challenge with P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Furthermore, PTEN CKO BMT AMs display improved TNF-a production and enhanced phagocytosis and killing of serum-opsonized P. aeruginosa despite overproduction of PGE2. However, AM phagocytosis of nonopsonized P. aeruginosa is only partially restored in the absence of PTEN after BMT. This may be related to elevated AM expression of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-M, a molecule previously identified in the PGE 2 signaling pathway to inhibit AM phagocytosis of nonopsonized bacteria. These data suggest that PGE 2 signaling up-regulates IRAK-M independently of PTEN and that these molecules differentially inhibit opsonized and nonopsonized phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa.

Sookrung N.,Mahidol University | Wong-Din-Dam S.,Graduate Program in Immunology | Wong-Din-Dam S.,Mahidol University | Tungtrongchitr A.,Mahidol University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2014

Vespa affinis (Asian wasp, Thai banded tiger wasp, or local name: Tor Hua Seua) causes the most frequent incidence of medically important Hymenoptera sting in South and Southeast Asia. However, data on the venom components attributable to the sting derived-clinical manifestations (local reactions, IgE mediated-anaphylaxis, or systemic envenomation) are lacking. This study provides the first set information on V. affinis venom proteome, allergenome, and IgE reactivity of individual venom components. From 2DE-gel based-proteomics, the venom revealed 93 protein spots, of which proteins in 51 spots could be identified and classified into three groups: typical venom components and structural and housekeeping proteins. Venom proteins in 32 spots reacted with serum IgE of wasp allergic patients. Major allergenic proteins that reacted to IgE of >50% of the wasp allergic patients included PLA1 (100%), arginine kinase (73%), heat shock 70 kDa protein (73.3%), venom allergen-5 (66.7%), enolase (66.7%), PLA1 magnifin (60%), glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase (60%), hyaluronidase (53.3%), and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (53.3%). The venom minor allergens were GB17876 transcript (40%), GB17291 transcript (20%), malic enzyme (13.3%), aconitate hydratase (6.7%), and phosphoglucomutase (6.7%). The information has diagnostic and clinical implications for future improvement of case diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, component-resolve diagnosis, and design of specific Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Poluektov Y.O.,Graduate Program in Immunology | Hartman I.Z.,Graduate Program in Immunology | Hartman I.Z.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Sadegh-Nasseri S.,Graduate Program in Immunology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Processing of antigens for presentation to helper T cells by MHC class II involves HLA-DM (DM) and HLA-DO (DO) accessory molecules. A mechanistic understanding of DO in this process has been missing. The leading model on its function proposes that DO inhibits the effects of DM. To directly study DO functions, we designed a recombinant soluble DO and expressed it in insect cells. The kinetics of binding and dissociation of several peptides to HLA-DR1 (DR1) molecules in the presence of DM and DO were measured. We found that DO reduced binding of DR1 to some peptides, and enhanced the binding of some other peptides to DR1. Interestingly, these enhancing and reducing effects were observed in the presence, or absence, of DM. We found that peptides that were negatively affected by DO were DM-sensitive, whereas peptides that were enhanced by DO were DM-resistant. The positive and negative effects of DO could only be measured on binding kinetics as peptide dissociation kinetics were not affected by DO. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we demonstrate direct binding of DO to a peptide-receptive, but not a closed conformation of DR1. We propose that DO imposes another layer of control on epitope selection during antigen processing. © 2013 Poluektov et al.

McCubbrey A.L.,Graduate Program in Immunology | Curtis J.L.,Graduate Program in Immunology | Curtis J.L.,University of Michigan
Chest | Year: 2013

In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis each day. Clearance of these apoptotic cells, termed "efferocytosis," must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the release of proinflammatory cell contents that disrupt tissue homeostasis and potentially foster autoimmunity. During inflammation, most apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages; the efferocytic process actively induces a macrophage phenotype that favors tissue repair and suppression of inflammation. Several chronic lung diseases, particularly airways diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by an increased lung burden of uningested apoptotic cells. Alveolar macrophages from individuals with these chronic airways diseases have decreased efferocytosis relative to alveolar macrophages from healthy subjects. These two findings have led to the hypothesis that impaired apoptotic cell clearance may contribute causally to sustained lung inflammation and that therapies to enhance efferocytosis might be beneficial. This review of the English-language scientific literature (2006 to mid-2012) explains how such existing therapies as corticosteroids, statins, and macrolides may act in part by augmenting apoptotic cell clearance. However, efferocytosis can also impede host defenses against lung infection. Thus, determining whether novel therapies to augment efferocytosis should be developed and in whom they should be used lies at the heart of efforts to differentiate specific phenotypes within complex chronic lung diseases to provide appropriately personalized therapies. © 2013 American College of Chest Physicians.

Keenan B.P.,Graduate Program in Immunology | Keenan B.P.,Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Jaffee E.M.,Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2012

Cancer vaccines have shown success in curing tumors in preclinical models. Accumulating evidence also supports their ability to induce immune responses in patients. In many cases, these responses correlate with improved clinical outcomes. However, cancer vaccines have not yet demonstrated their true potential in clinical trials. This is likely due to the difficulty in mounting a significant anti-tumor response in patients with advanced disease because of pre-existing tolerance mechanisms that are actively turning off immune recognition in cancer patients. This review will examine the recent progress being made in the design and implementation of whole cell cancer vaccines, one vaccine approach that simultaneously targets multiple tumor antigens to activate the immune response. These vaccines have been shown to induce antigen-specific T-cell responses. Preclinical studies evaluating these vaccines given in sequence with other agents and cancer treatment modalities support the use of immunomodulating doses of chemotherapy and radiation, as well as immune-modulating pathway-targeted monoclonal antibodies, to enhance the efficacy of cancer vaccines. Based on emerging preclinical data, clinical trials are currently exploring the use of combinatorial immune-based therapies for the treatment of cancer. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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