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Huang Y.-H.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Wu T.-Y.,National Cheng Kung University | Learman K.E.,Youngstown State University | Tsai Y.-S.,Graduate Institute of Transition
Chinese Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight. Throwing kinematics was recorded by an electromagnetic motion analysis system. A foot switch was used for determining foot off and foot contact. Ball speed was recorded with a sports radar gun. The group with a history of MEP demonstrated less elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation and had more lateral trunk tilt at ball release compared to the healthy group. The group with a history of MEP also had faster maximum upper torso rotation velocities, maximum pelvis rotation velocities and ball speeds. Maximum shoulder external rotation angle (r = 0.458, P = 0.011), elbow flexion angle at maximum shoulder external rotation (r = -0.637, P = 0.0003), and maximum upper torso rotation velocity (r = 0.562, P = 0.002) had significant correlation with ball speed. Findings of this study can be treated as elbow injury-related factors that clinicians and coaches can attend to when taking care of youth players. © 2010 by The Chinese Physiological Society.

Yang A.-L.,Graduate Institute of Transition | Lo C.-W.,Graduate Institute of Transition | Lee J.-T.,National Cheng Kung University | Su C.-T.,Fu Jen Catholic University
Chinese Journal of Physiology | Year: 2011

Exercise can ameliorate vascular dysfunction in hypertension, but its underlying mechanism has not been explored thoroughly. We aimed to investigate whether the high-intensity exercise could enhance vasorelaxation mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in hypertension. Sixteen-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into non-exercise sedentary (SHR) and high-intensity exercise (SHR+Ex) groups conducted by treadmill running at a speed of 30 m/ min until exhaustion. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the normotensive control group. Immediately after exercise, the agonist-induced vasorelaxation of aortas was evaluated in organ baths with or without endothelial denudation. Selective inhibitors were used to examine the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) in the vasorelaxation. By adding superoxide dismutase (SOD), a superoxide scavenger, the role of superoxide production in the vasorelaxation was also clarified. We found that, [1] the high-intensity exercise significantly (P < 0.05) induced higher vasorelaxant responses to insulin and IGF-1 in the SHR+Ex group than that in the SHR group; [2] after endothelial denudation and pre-treatment of the PI3K inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, or SOD, vasorelaxant responses to insulin and IGF-1 became similar among three groups; [3] the protein expression of insulin receptor, IGF-1 receptor, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the SHR+Ex group compared with the SHR group; [4] the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, was not different among three groups. Our findings suggested that the high-intensity exercise ameliorated the insulin- and IGF-1-mediated vasorelaxation through the endothelium-dependent pathway, which was associated with the reduced level of superoxide production. © 2011 by The Chinese Physiological Society and Airiti Press Inc.

Tsai S.-C.,Graduate Institute of Transition | Chen C.-P.,Mackay Memorial Hospital | Su T.-H.,Nursing and Management College | Lu C.-C.,Nursing and Management College
Chinese Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010

Ovarian failure is commonly caused by aging, autoimmune disease, menopause and cancer therapy. We used an ischemic model in the ovary to test the hypothesis that stem cells are helpful for ovarian regeneration after injury. Three treatment regimes were employed: sham-operated control, ligation plus PBS, and ligation plus immortalized human bone marrow stromal cells (stem cells) groups. After ligation-induced ischemia, stem cells or PBS were injected into rat ovaries. Then, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin was given intra-peritoneally to initiate folliculogenesis. The animals were then sacrificed. The ovary gland was weighed, and ovarian folliculogenesis, stem cell differentiation and vascular neogenesis were evaluated. In order to study improvement of folliculogenesis after ovarian ischemia, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), p44/p42 MAPK (T-ERK1/2), and phospho-p44/ p42 MAPK (P-ERK1/2) expression were specifically evaluated. Results indicated that ovarian size was smaller and that the rate of folliculogenesis was lower in ovarian ischemic-reperfusion animals, but both recovered after stem cell treatment. The stem cells migrated into the ovary and differentiated into theca cells, granulosa cells, corona radiata cells and vascular endothelial cells. In addition, von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression was increased; 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), P-ERK1/2 and StAR protein expression was recovered by stem cells treatment in the ischemic ovaries. The serum LH was significantly increased in ovaries of ischemia-reperfusion animals, but the stem cell treatment restored the effects. These results suggest that stem cells might be helpful for ovarian regeneration after injuries by promoting vascular neogenesis and steroidogenesis through the MAPK pathway. © 2010 by The Chinese Physiological Society.

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