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Wu C.-L.,A-Life Medical | Ho J.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology | Chou S.-C.,Armed Forces TaoYuan General Hospital | Yu D.-S.,A-Life Medical | Yu D.-S.,National Defense Medical Center
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanying loss of E-cadherin is important for invasiveness and metastasis of bladder cancer. MicroRNAs (miRs) had been associated with cancer progression and differentiation in several cancers. Our goal is to find out the specific miR which modulates EMT in bladder cancer. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the miRs expression in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) cell lines. MiR or siRNA mimics was used to regulate miR and mRNA level respectively. Migration and scratch assays were used to determine the migratory ability. Zymography assay was used to confirm the metalloproteinase activity. Western blotting was used to elucidate the mechanism which regulated by specific miR. MiR-429 was highly expressed in low grade UCC cell lines. Exogenous mimic of miR-429 treatment dramatically inhibited the migratory ability of T24 cells. MiR-429 downstream target ZEB1 was decreased, E-cadherin was restored, and β-catenin was contrarily decreased by exogenous mimic of miR-429 treatment in T24 cells. Cell invasive ability was also inhibited by exogenous mimic of miR-429 treatment through inactivating the MMP-2 activity in T24 cells. E-cadherin protein expression level was inhibited by E-cadherin siRNA accompanied with increasing cell migratory ability when compared with control group in low grade TSGH8301 cells. MiR-429 decreased the cell migratory and invasive abilities through reducing ZEB1 and β-catenin, restoring the E-cadherin expression and inactivation of MMP-2 of UCC cells. MiR-429 might be used as a progression marker of bladder cancer.

Wu Y.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Yen M.-F.,Taipei Medical University | Yu C.-P.,Tri Service General Hospital | Yu C.-P.,Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology | Chen H.-H.,National Taiwan University
Risk Analysis | Year: 2014

Few studies have focused on the different roles risk factors play in the multistate temporal natural course of breast cancer. We proposed a three-state Markov regression model to predict the risk from free of breast cancer (FBC) to the preclinical screen-detectable phase (PCDP) and from the PCDP to the clinical phase (CP). We searched the initiators and promoters affecting onset and subsequent progression of breast tumor to build up a three-state temporal natural history model with state-dependent genetic and environmental covariates. This risk assessment model was applied to a 1 million Taiwanese women cohort. The proposed model was verified by external validation with another independent data set. We identified three kinds of initiators, including the BRCA gene, seven single nucleotides polymorphism, and breast density. ER, Ki-67, and HER-2 were found as promoters. Body mass index and age at first pregnancy both played a role. Among women carrying the BRCA gene, the 10-year predicted risk for the transition from FBC to CP was 25.83%, 20.31%, and 13.84% for the high-, intermediate-, and low-risk group, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.55%, 1.22%, and 0.76% among noncarriers. The mean sojourn time of staying at the PCDP ranged from 0.82 years for the highest risk group to 6.21 years for the lowest group. The lack of statistical significance for external validation (x(4)2=5.30,p=0.26) revealed the adequacy of our proposed model. The three-state model with state-dependent covariates of initiators and promoters was proposed for achieving individually tailored screening and also for personalized clinical surveillance of early breast cancer. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

Chen Y.-H.,Tzu Chi University | Chen Y.-H.,National Defense Medical Center | Liu J.-M.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical science | Hsu R.-J.,Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology | And 7 more authors.
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders | Year: 2012

Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms have been associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, several controversial results have also been found in different studied populations. This hospital-based, emergency room, case-control study in Taiwan retrospectively investigated 111 ACS patients, and 195 non-coronary subjects as a control group, to study the effects of ACE I/D polymorphism in the most urgent ACS patients. ACE I/D polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-based assays and their associations with ACS risk, severity, and sudden cardiac death were determined.Results: The ACE DD genotype was associated with ACS incidence. The DD genotype was associated with a significant 4-fold higher risk of ACS in multivariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 4.295; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.436-12.851, p = 0.009), and a 3.35-fold higher risk of acute myocardial infarction. DD genotype carriers also had more than 3-fold higher risks of stenosis in all the three coronary arteries, left anterior descending artery infarction, and anterior wall infarction. In addition, the DD genotype was also associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death (OR = 6.484, 95% CI: 1.036-40.598, p = 0.046).Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the ACE DD genotype is an independent risk factor for ACS, and in particular, for acute myocardial infarction. In addition, the ACE DD genotype is also associated with greater ACS severity and a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. ACE genotyping is recommended for patients with a history of ACS, and more intensive preventive care is suggested for patients with the DD genotype. © 2012 Chen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Cha T.-L.,National Defense Medical Center | Cha T.-L.,A-Life Medical | Chuang M.-J.,National Defense Medical Center | Tang S.-H.,National Defense Medical Center | And 13 more authors.
Molecular Carcinogenesis | Year: 2015

The deregulation of epigenetics was involved in early and subsequent carcinogenic events. Reversing cancer epigenetics to restore a normal epigenetic condition could be a rational approach for cancer treatment and specialized prevention. In the present study, we found that the expression levels of two epigenetic markers, histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), was low but histone H3S10 phosphorylation (pH3Ser10) was high in human bladder cancer tissues, which showed opposite expression patterns in their normal counterparts. Thus, we investigated whether a natural product, emodin, has the ability to reverse these two epigenetic modifications and inhibit bladder cancer cell growth. Emodin significantly inhibited the cell growth of four bladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Emodin treatment did not induce specific cell cycle arrest, but it altered epigenetic modifications. Emodin treatment resulted in the suppression of pH3Ser10 and increased H3K27me3, contributing to gene silencing in bladder cancer cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that oncogenic genes including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1 (HBP17), RGS4, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3), WNT5b, URB, and collagen, type VIII, alpha 1 (COL8A1) responsible for proliferation, survival, inflammation, and carcinogenesis were significantly repressed by emodin. The ChIP assays also showed that emodin increased H3K27me3 but decreased pH3Ser10 modifications on the promoters of repressed genes, which indicate that emodin reverses the cancer epigenetics towards normal epigenetic situations. In conclusion, our work demonstrates the significant anti-neoplastic activity of emodin on bladder cancer cells and elucidates the novel mechanisms of emodin-mediated epigenetic modulation of target genes. Our study warrants further investigation of emodin as an effective therapeutic or preventive agent for bladder cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Huang C.-S.,National Yang Ming University | Tang S.-J.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Chung L.-Y.,National Yang Ming University | Yu C.-P.,Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2014

Galectin-1, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, differentiation, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. However, the role of galectin- 1 in kidney cancer remains elusive. This study evaluated the role of galectin-1 in the progression and clinical prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. We found significant over expression of galectin-1 in both kidney cancer cell lines and metastatic tissue specimens from patients with renal cell carcinoma. Knockdown of galectin-1 gene expression in renal cancer cell lines reduced cell invasion, clonogenic ability, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro; reduced tumor outgrowth in vivo; and inhibited the angiogenesis-inducing activity of these cells in vitro and in vivo. Galectin-1 knockdown decreased CXCR4 expression levels in kidney cancer cells, and restoration of CXCR4 expression in galectin-1-silenced cells rescued cell motility and clonogenic ability. Additional studies suggested that galectin-1 induced CXCR4 expression through activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Analysis of patient specimens confirmed the clinical significance and positive correlation between galectin-1 and CXCR4 expression levels and revealed concomitant over expression of galectin-1 and CXCR4 associated adversely with overall and disease-free survival. Our findings suggest that galectin-1 promotes tumor progression through upregulation of CXCR4 via NF-κB. The coordinated upregulation of galectin-1 and CXCR4 may be a novel prognostic factor for survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma and the galectin-1-CXCR4 axis may serve as a therapeutic target in this disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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