Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology

Taipei, Taiwan

Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology

Taipei, Taiwan
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Lin C.-S.,Graduate Institute of Medical Science | Lin C.-S.,Tri Service General Hospital | Lin F.-Y.,Taipei Medical University | Lin F.-Y.,Taipei Medical University Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2012

Aims: The formation of foam cells is crucial in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. One of the critical steps in foam cell formation is the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by macrophages via scavenger receptors (SRs). This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms on foam cell formation. Methods and results: The effects of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against classical PKC and novel PKC isoforms were investigated in THP-1-derived macrophages and primary macrophages. The knockdown of PKCd inhibited oxidized LDL (OxLDL) uptake and intracellular cholesterol accumulation in both cell models. The reduction of PKCd resulted in decreased expression of SR-A and CD36. Similar conclusions were obtained in examining the effects of a PKCd inhibitor, rottlerin. Molecular investigation revealed that a decrease in PKCδ inhibited protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) expression and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Surprisingly, PKCd-knockdown selectively decreased protein but not the mRNA level of PKCβI and PKCβII. We showed that the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt upstream of ERK decreased SR-A and CD36 expression; however, the inhibition of ERK or PKCβ downstream of ERK attenuated SR-A but not CD36 expression. We further demonstrated that PKCδ could be induced by pro-atherogenic mediators, OxLDL and interferon-γ. Notably, PKCd, phosphorylated ERK, Akt, and SR-A were highly expressed in human atherosclerotic arteries and CD68-positive macrophages as visualized by immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion: Through regulating PI3K/Akt and ERK activity, PKCd affects SR-A and CD36 expression and foam cell formation. The results suggest PKCδ as a potential target for atherosclerosis therapeutics. © The Author 2012.


Chen P.-M.,National Health Research Institute | Yen M.-L.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Liu K.-J.,National Institute of Cancer Research | Sytwu H.-K.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2011

In recent years, a large number of studies have contributed to our understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms used by multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Initially isolated from the bone marrow (BM), MSCs have been found in many tissues but the strong immunomodulatory properties are best studied in BM MSCs. The immunomodulatory effects of BM MSCs are wide, extending to T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and are therapeutically useful for treatment of immune-related diseases including graft-versus-host disease as well as possibly autoimmune diseases. However, BM MSCs are very rare cells and require an invasive procedure for procurement. Recently, MSCs have also been found in fetal-stage embryo-proper and extra-embryonic tissues, and these human fetal MSCs (F-MSCs) have a higher proliferative profile, and are capable of multilineage differentiation as well as exert strong immunomodulatory effects. As such, these F-MSCs can be viewed as alternative sources of MSCs. We review here the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the immunomodulatory properties of BM MSCs and F-MSCs. An increase in our understanding of MSC suppressor mechanisms will offer insights for prevalent clinical use of these versatile adult stem cells in the near future. © 2011 Chen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wu C.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital | Wu C.-C.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Lu K.-C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | Lin G.-J.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN), an autoimmune-mediated glomerulonephritis, is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Therapeutic agents for MN remain ill defined. We assessed the efficacy of melatonin therapy for MN. Experimental murine MN was induced with cationic bovine serum albumin, and the mice were immediately administered 20 mg/kg melatonin or phosphate-buffered saline subcutaneously once a day. Disease severity was verified by examining serum and urine metabolic profiles and renal histopathology. The expression of cytokines and oxidative stress markers, cell apoptosis, and the associated mechanisms were also determined. Mice treated with melatonin displayed a significant reduction in proteinuria and a marked amelioration of glomerular lesions, with attenuated immunocomplex deposition. The subpopulations of T cells were not altered, but the CD19 + B-cell subpopulation was significantly reduced in the MN mice treated with melatonin. The expression of cytokine mRNAs in splenocytes indicated that melatonin reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10). The production of reactive oxygen species and TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the kidney were also significantly reduced in the melatonin-treated MN mice. Melatonin also upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) and ameliorated MN. The blockade of HO1 expression with SnPP, a HO1 inhibitor, attenuated HO1 induction by melatonin and thus mitigated its renoprotective effects during MN. Our results suggest that melatonin treatment ameliorates experimental MN via multiple pathways, including by its antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and immunomodulatory effects. Melatonin should be considered a potential therapeutic intervention for MN in the future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Wu C.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital | Wu C.-C.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Sytwu H.-K.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Lu K.-C.,Fu Jen Catholic University | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Diabetes Research | Year: 2011

Type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and is increasingly considered as an inflammatory disease characterized by leukocyte infiltration at every stage of renal involvement. Inflammation and activation of the immune system are closely involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its microvascular complications. Macrophage has been well recognized to play an important role in type 2 DN, leukocyte infiltration, and participated in process of DN, as was proposed recently. Th1, Th2, Th17, T reg, and cytotoxic T cells are involved in the development and progression of DN. The purpose of this review is to assemble current information concerning the role of T cells in the development and progression of type 2 DN. Specific emphasis is placed on the potential interaction and contribution of the T cells to renal damage. The therapeutic strategies involving T cells in the treatment of type 2 DN are also reviewed. Improving knowledge of the recognition of T cells as significant pathogenic mediators in DN reinforces the possibility of new potential therapeutic targets translated into future clinical treatments. Copyright © 2011 Chia-Chao Wu et al.


Yen B.L.,National Health Research Institute | Yen B.L.,Cathay General Hospital Shiji | Yen M.-L.,National Taiwan University | Hsu P.-J.,National Health Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multilineage progenitors with immunomodulatory properties, including expansion of immunomodulatory leukocytes such as regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) and tolerogenic dendritic cells. We report that human MSCs can expand CD14-CD11b+CD33 + human myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MSC-expanded MDSCs suppress allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation, express arginase-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and increase the number of Tregs. This expansion occurs through the secretion of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), with effects replicated by adding HGF singly and abrogated by HGF knockdown in MSCs. In wild-type mice, the liver, which secretes high levels of HGF, contains high numbers of Gr-1+CD11b+ MDSCs, and injection of HGF into mice significantly increases the number of MDSCs. Expansion of MDSCs by MSC-secreted HGF involves c-Met (its receptor) and downstream phosphorylation of STAT3, a key factor in MDSC expansion. Our data further support the strong immunomodulatory nature of MSCs and demonstrate the role of HGF, a mitogenic molecule, in the expansion of MDSCs. © 2013 The Authors.


Hsu Y.-L.,Graduate Institute of Medical Science | Shi S.-F.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Wu W.-L.,National Health Research Institute | Ho L.-J.,National Health Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Interferons (IFNs) are critical cytokines that regulate immune response against virus infections. Dengue virus (DV) infections are a major public health concern worldwide, and especially in Asia. In the present study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3 (IFIT3) in human lung epithelial cells. The results demonstrated that DV infection induced expression of several IFITs, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, and IFIT5 in A549 cells. Induction of IFIT3 by DV infection was also observed in human dendritic cells. In a knockdown study, we showed that a signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2), but not STAT1 or STAT3, regulated DV-induced IFIT3 production. By using several different methods to evaluate cell death, we demonstrated that knockdown of IFIT3 led to cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of IFIT3 induced the expression of several apoptotic regulators such as caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX). Such apoptotic effects and mechanisms were synergistically enhanced after DV infection. Moreover, under conditions of IFIT3 deficiency, viral production increased, suggesting an anti-viral effect of IFIT3. Interestingly, DV could suppress IFN-α-induced but not IFN-γ-induced IFIT3 expression, a phenomenon similar to the regulation of STATs by DV. In conclusion, this study revealed some mechanisms of IFIT3 induction, and also demonstrated the protective roles of IFIT3 following IFN-α production in DV infection of human lung epithelial cells. © 2013 Hsu et al.


Sung C.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital | Sung C.-C.,Graduate Institute of Medical Science | Hsu Y.-C.,Taoyuan General Hospital | Chen C.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2013

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and a high risk for developing malignancy. Excessive oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in elevating these risks by increasing oxidative nucleic acid damage. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) production and antioxidant defense mechanisms and can cause vascular and tissue injuries as well as nucleic acid damage in CKD patients. The increased production of RONS, impaired nonenzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms, and other risk factors including gene polymorphisms, uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate), deficiency of arylesterase/paraoxonase, hyperhomocysteinemia, dialysis-associated membrane bioincompatibility, and endotoxin in patients with CKD can inhibit normal cell function by damaging cell lipids, arachidonic acid derivatives, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Several clinical biomarkers and techniques have been used to detect the antioxidant status and oxidative stress/oxidative nucleic acid damage associated with long-term complications such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and malignancy in CKD patients. Antioxidant therapies have been studied to reduce the oxidative stress and nucleic acid oxidation in patients with CKD, including alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, glutathione, folic acid, bardoxolone methyl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and providing better dialysis strategies. This paper provides an overview of radical production, antioxidant defence, pathogenesis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with CKD, and possible antioxidant therapies. © 2013 Chih-Chien Sung et al.


Fan H.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital | Fernandez-Hernando C.,Yale University | Lai J.-H.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Lai J.-H.,Chang Gung University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Atherosclerosis is a pathologic condition caused by chronic inflammation in response to lipid deposition in the arterial wall. There are many known contributing factors such as long-term abnormal glucose levels, smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Under the influence of such factors, immune and non-immune effectors cells are activated and participate during the progression of atherosclerosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) family isoforms are key players in the signal transduction pathways of cellular activation and have been associated with several aspects of the atherosclerotic vascular disease. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of PKC isoforms functions during atherogenesis, and addresses differential roles and disputable observations of PKC isoforms. Among PKC isoforms, both PKCβ and PKCδ are the most attractive and potential therapeutic targets. This commentary discusses in detail the outcomes and current status of clinical trials on PKCβ and PKCδ inhibitors in atherosclerosis-associated disorders like diabetes and myocardial infarction. The risk and benefit of these inhibitors for clinical purposes will be also discussed. This review summarizes what is already being done and what else needs to be done in further targeting PKC isoforms, especially PKCβ and PKCδ, for therapy of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated vasculopathies in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Hung L.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Huang K.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Yang D.-H.,Armed Forces Taichung General Hospital | Chang D.-M.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development | Year: 2010

Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a hallmark in aged people. T cells play important roles in maintaining homeostasis of immune function. This study investigated the effects of AGEs-bovine serum albumin (AGEs) in human T cells. Incubation of Jurkat and several immortalized T cell lines with AGEs resulted in cell death dose-dependently. AGEs-induced cell death was partially but significantly blocked by neutralizing antibodies recognizing receptor of AGEs. In addition to detecting DNA nick, simultaneous stainings of annexin V with 7-amino-actinomycin D further confirmed the apoptotic nature of cell death. AGEs also caused apoptosis in purified T cells. Although AGEs-induced apoptosis could be blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Ala-Asp-fluomethyl ketone (Z-VAD-fmk), there was no activation of caspase-3, -5, -8 and -9. AGEs caused mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and this process was prevented by an antioxidant or Z-VAD-fmk. Furthermore, AGEs treatment led to translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. Altogether, this report demonstrated that AGEs induced T cell apoptosis in an oxidative stress-associated and caspase-dependent manner with involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. It is likely that AGEs-induced T cell apoptosis may play a role in T cell homeostasis in ageing. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Chen P.-M.,Institute of Cellular and System Medicine | Liu K.-J.,National Health Research Institute | Liu K.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Hsu P.-J.,Institute of Cellular and System Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2014

Monocytes are a population of leukocytes that terminally differentiate into macrophages and DCs. Whereas these differentiated progeny have inflammatory and resident-which are more immunomodulatory-phenotypes, less has been reported on the plasticity of monocytes themselves. We found that MSCs, a population of somatic stem cells, can rapidly induce human and murine monocytes through secretion of HGF to acquire an immunomodulatory phenotype to suppress T cell effector function. MSCs are multilineage postnatal progenitor cells with strong immunomodulatory effects toward T lymphocytes, NK lymphocytes, and DCs, but less is known regarding their interactions with monocytes. We found that CD14+ human monocytes express c-Met, the receptor for HGF, and both depletion of HGF-treated CD14+ monocytes and knockdown of HGF secretion in MSCs abrogate the suppression of anti-CD3/28-activated T cell proliferation. HGF-treated monocytes remain undifferentiated and can alter activated T cell cytokine expression from a Th1 toward Th2 profile. Moreover, monocytes cocultured with MSCs or treated with HGF alone can produce high levels of IL-10, a potent immunomodulatory cytokine. Injection of HGF to WT mice also results in an increase in IL-10+-expressing monocytes from the spleen, a known reservoir for circulating monocytes. Mechanistically, HGFs modulate IL-10 production in monocytes through the ERK1/2 pathway. Our data demonstrate further the pleomorphic nature of MSC immunomodulation, as well as highlight the important role of immunomodulatory monocytes in altering T cell effector function. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

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