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Lin C.-S.,Graduate Institute of Medical science | Lin F.-Y.,Taipei Medical University | Lin F.-Y.,Taipei Medical University Hospital | Ho L.-J.,National Health Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Cardiovascular Research | Year: 2012

Aims: The formation of foam cells is crucial in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. One of the critical steps in foam cell formation is the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by macrophages via scavenger receptors (SRs). This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms on foam cell formation. Methods and results: The effects of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against classical PKC and novel PKC isoforms were investigated in THP-1-derived macrophages and primary macrophages. The knockdown of PKCd inhibited oxidized LDL (OxLDL) uptake and intracellular cholesterol accumulation in both cell models. The reduction of PKCd resulted in decreased expression of SR-A and CD36. Similar conclusions were obtained in examining the effects of a PKCd inhibitor, rottlerin. Molecular investigation revealed that a decrease in PKCδ inhibited protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) expression and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Surprisingly, PKCd-knockdown selectively decreased protein but not the mRNA level of PKCβI and PKCβII. We showed that the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt upstream of ERK decreased SR-A and CD36 expression; however, the inhibition of ERK or PKCβ downstream of ERK attenuated SR-A but not CD36 expression. We further demonstrated that PKCδ could be induced by pro-atherogenic mediators, OxLDL and interferon-γ. Notably, PKCd, phosphorylated ERK, Akt, and SR-A were highly expressed in human atherosclerotic arteries and CD68-positive macrophages as visualized by immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion: Through regulating PI3K/Akt and ERK activity, PKCd affects SR-A and CD36 expression and foam cell formation. The results suggest PKCδ as a potential target for atherosclerosis therapeutics. © The Author 2012.

Hung L.-F.,National Health Research Institute | Huang K.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Yang D.-H.,Armed Forces Taichung General Hospital | Chang D.-M.,National Defense Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development | Year: 2010

Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a hallmark in aged people. T cells play important roles in maintaining homeostasis of immune function. This study investigated the effects of AGEs-bovine serum albumin (AGEs) in human T cells. Incubation of Jurkat and several immortalized T cell lines with AGEs resulted in cell death dose-dependently. AGEs-induced cell death was partially but significantly blocked by neutralizing antibodies recognizing receptor of AGEs. In addition to detecting DNA nick, simultaneous stainings of annexin V with 7-amino-actinomycin D further confirmed the apoptotic nature of cell death. AGEs also caused apoptosis in purified T cells. Although AGEs-induced apoptosis could be blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Ala-Asp-fluomethyl ketone (Z-VAD-fmk), there was no activation of caspase-3, -5, -8 and -9. AGEs caused mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and this process was prevented by an antioxidant or Z-VAD-fmk. Furthermore, AGEs treatment led to translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. Altogether, this report demonstrated that AGEs induced T cell apoptosis in an oxidative stress-associated and caspase-dependent manner with involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. It is likely that AGEs-induced T cell apoptosis may play a role in T cell homeostasis in ageing. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Chen P.-M.,Institute of Cellular and System Medicine | Liu K.-J.,National Health Research Institute | Liu K.-J.,Taipei Medical University | Hsu P.-J.,Institute of Cellular and System Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2014

Monocytes are a population of leukocytes that terminally differentiate into macrophages and DCs. Whereas these differentiated progeny have inflammatory and resident-which are more immunomodulatory-phenotypes, less has been reported on the plasticity of monocytes themselves. We found that MSCs, a population of somatic stem cells, can rapidly induce human and murine monocytes through secretion of HGF to acquire an immunomodulatory phenotype to suppress T cell effector function. MSCs are multilineage postnatal progenitor cells with strong immunomodulatory effects toward T lymphocytes, NK lymphocytes, and DCs, but less is known regarding their interactions with monocytes. We found that CD14+ human monocytes express c-Met, the receptor for HGF, and both depletion of HGF-treated CD14+ monocytes and knockdown of HGF secretion in MSCs abrogate the suppression of anti-CD3/28-activated T cell proliferation. HGF-treated monocytes remain undifferentiated and can alter activated T cell cytokine expression from a Th1 toward Th2 profile. Moreover, monocytes cocultured with MSCs or treated with HGF alone can produce high levels of IL-10, a potent immunomodulatory cytokine. Injection of HGF to WT mice also results in an increase in IL-10+-expressing monocytes from the spleen, a known reservoir for circulating monocytes. Mechanistically, HGFs modulate IL-10 production in monocytes through the ERK1/2 pathway. Our data demonstrate further the pleomorphic nature of MSC immunomodulation, as well as highlight the important role of immunomodulatory monocytes in altering T cell effector function. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

Fan H.-C.,National Defense Medical Center | Fernandez-Hernando C.,Yale University | Lai J.-H.,Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Immunology | Lai J.-H.,Chang Gung University
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Atherosclerosis is a pathologic condition caused by chronic inflammation in response to lipid deposition in the arterial wall. There are many known contributing factors such as long-term abnormal glucose levels, smoking, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Under the influence of such factors, immune and non-immune effectors cells are activated and participate during the progression of atherosclerosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) family isoforms are key players in the signal transduction pathways of cellular activation and have been associated with several aspects of the atherosclerotic vascular disease. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of PKC isoforms functions during atherogenesis, and addresses differential roles and disputable observations of PKC isoforms. Among PKC isoforms, both PKCβ and PKCδ are the most attractive and potential therapeutic targets. This commentary discusses in detail the outcomes and current status of clinical trials on PKCβ and PKCδ inhibitors in atherosclerosis-associated disorders like diabetes and myocardial infarction. The risk and benefit of these inhibitors for clinical purposes will be also discussed. This review summarizes what is already being done and what else needs to be done in further targeting PKC isoforms, especially PKCβ and PKCδ, for therapy of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated vasculopathies in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Sung C.-C.,National Defense Medical Center | Sung C.-C.,Graduate Institute of Medical science | Hsu Y.-C.,Taoyuan General Hospital | Chen C.-C.,National Defense Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2013

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and a high risk for developing malignancy. Excessive oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in elevating these risks by increasing oxidative nucleic acid damage. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) production and antioxidant defense mechanisms and can cause vascular and tissue injuries as well as nucleic acid damage in CKD patients. The increased production of RONS, impaired nonenzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms, and other risk factors including gene polymorphisms, uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate), deficiency of arylesterase/paraoxonase, hyperhomocysteinemia, dialysis-associated membrane bioincompatibility, and endotoxin in patients with CKD can inhibit normal cell function by damaging cell lipids, arachidonic acid derivatives, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Several clinical biomarkers and techniques have been used to detect the antioxidant status and oxidative stress/oxidative nucleic acid damage associated with long-term complications such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and malignancy in CKD patients. Antioxidant therapies have been studied to reduce the oxidative stress and nucleic acid oxidation in patients with CKD, including alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, glutathione, folic acid, bardoxolone methyl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and providing better dialysis strategies. This paper provides an overview of radical production, antioxidant defence, pathogenesis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with CKD, and possible antioxidant therapies. © 2013 Chih-Chien Sung et al.

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