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Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Chu K.-S.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Chen T.-I.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Wang H.-M.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Lu I.-C.,Graduate Institute of Medicine
Anaesthesia | Year: 2010

Fibreoptic intubation is a valuable modality for airway management. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine vs target controlled propofol infusion in providing sedation during fibreoptic intubation. Forty patients with anticipated difficult airways and due to undergo tracheal intubation for elective surgery were enrolled and randomly allocated into the dexmedetomidine group (1.0 μg.kg-1 over 10 min) (n = 20) or the propofol target controlled infusion group (n = 20). Intubating conditions and patient tolerance as graded by a scoring system were evaluated as primary outcomes. Intubation was successful in all patients. Satisfactory intubating conditions were found in both groups (19 ? 20 in each group). The median (IOR [range]) comfort score was 2 (1-2 [1-4]) in the dexmedetomidine group and 3 (2-4 [2-5]) in the propofol group (p = 0.027), favouring the former. The dexmedetomidine group experienced fewer airway events and less heart rate response to intubation than the propofol group (p < 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). Both dexmedetomidine and propofol target-controlled infusion are effective for fibreoptic intubation. Dexmedetomidine allows better tolerance, more stable haemodynamic status and preserves a patent airway. © 2010 The Authors. Source

Huang Y.-H.,Chang Gung University | Huang Y.-H.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Lee T.-C.,Chang Gung University | Lee T.-H.,Chang Gung University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Object. Decompressive craniectomy is a life-saving measure for patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI), but patients undergoing this procedure may still die during an early phase of head injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, causes, and risk factors of 30-day mortality in traumatically brain-injured patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. Methods. The authors included 201 head-injured patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy in this 3-year retrospective study. The main outcome evaluated was 30-day mortality in patients who had undergone craniectomy after TBI. Demographic and clinical data, including information on death, were obtained for subsequent analysis. The authors identified differences between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of clinical parameters; multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for independent risk factors of short-term death. Results. The 30-day mortality rate was 26.4% in traumatically brain-injured patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. The majority of deaths following decompression resulted from uncontrollable brain swelling and extensive brain infarction, which accounted for 79.2% of mortality. In the multivariate logistic regression mode, the 2 independent risk factors for 30-day mortality were age (OR 1.035 [95% CI 1.006-1.064]; p = 0.018) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score before decompressive craniectomy (OR 0.769 [95% CI 0.597-0.990]; p = 0.041). Conclusions. There is a high 30-day mortality rate in traumatically brain-injured patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. Most of the deaths are attributed to ongoing brain damage, even after decompression. Risk factors of short-term death, including age and preoperative GCS score, are important in patient selection for decompressive craniectomy, and these factors should be considered together to ensure the highest chance of surviving TBI. © AANS, 2013. Source

Juan Y.-S.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Juan Y.-S.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Lee Y.-L.,Chi Shan Hospital | Chang W.-C.,Kaohsiung Medical University | And 3 more authors.
BJU International | Year: 2012

Objective To evaluate whether green tea extract, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), could prevent ovariectomy-induced overactive bladder (OAB) and to investigate its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrosis effects. Materials and Methods In all, 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. After bilateral ovariectomy, the first group served as the ovariectomy control, the second group received EGCG 1 ÂμM/kg daily i.p. injection after ovariectomy surgery, and the third group received EGCG 10 ÂμM/kg daily i.p. injection. The fourth group was taken as the sham without ovariectomy surgery. The rats were killed after 6 months after ovariectomy surgery. Cystometrograms were performed for the measure of bladder overactivity. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay was used to evaluate apoptotic cells. Western immunoblots were performed to determine the expressions of inflammatory markers, apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress markers. Results Long-term ovariectomy significantly increased non-voiding contractions and decreased bladder compliance. Treatment with EGCG significantly increased bladder compliance and diminished non-voiding contractions. Ovariectomy significantly increased apoptotic cells and enhanced interstitial fibrosis in bladders. The expression of caspase-3 significantly increased, while that of Bcl-2 notably decreased after ovariectomy. Inflammatory and fibrosis markers, TGF-β, fibronectin and type I collagen expressions were significantly increased after 6 months of ovariectomy surgery. Treatment with EGCG significantly decreased TGF-β and type I collagen expressions. Oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine and protein carbonylation levels were significantly increased in the ovariectomy group. EGCG could attenuate this oxidative damage in dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions Ovariectomy increased oxidative damage, enhanced voiding frequency and decreased bladder compliance. EGCG could restore ovariectomy-induced bladder dysfunction in a dose-dependent fashion through antioxidant, anti-fibrosis and anti-apoptosis effects. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL. Source

Su Y.-S.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Su Y.-S.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Yu H.-S.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Li W.-C.,Kaohsiung Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Background Psoriasis is a systemic disease associated with metabolic disorders and vascular complications. Both psoriasis and metabolic disorders are associated with systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that the sequence of events between the onset of psoriasis and metabolic disorder may affect the risk for subsequent development of vascular complications. Methods Nested case-control study was performed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Accordingly, a total of 8180 psoriatic patients and 163 600 controls were included. Psoriasis was considered as the initiator of inflammatory march if metabolic disorder, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, developed after onset of psoriasis. In patients with pre-existing metabolic disorder, psoriasis was considered as the amplifier of inflammatory march. Results In patients whose psoriasis served as the disease initiator, a lower risk for developing vascular disease (HR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.11-2.00 and HR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.31-2.05 for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, respectively) was found compared with patients whose psoriasis served as the disease amplifier (HR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.72-2.97 and HR = 2.78; 95% CI = 2.26-3.42 for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events, respectively) after adjusting for age and gender. In terms of treatment implications, methotrexate was associated with reduced risk for developing cerebrovascular event (HR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.05-0.88) only in patients with psoriasis serving as the disease amplifier. Conclusions Our results suggested that two scenarios of systemic inflammatory marches are present among psoriatic patients with metabolic disorder and judicious use of methotrexate may reduce the risk of cerebrovascular event, especially when psoriasis served as the disease amplifier of the systemic inflammatory march. © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Source

Lin L.-C.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Lin L.-C.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Lee W.-T.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Chen I.-J.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Yang R.-C.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Febrile convulsion (FC) is the most common neurological disease in children. Cases with seizures that persist for more than 15 minutes or recurrent seizures within the same febrile illness are considered to be atypical and may have a different prognosis. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant that is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the hippocampus, is known to prevent seizures by increasing the seizure threshold. Based on our previously finding that patients with atypical FC have lower concentrations of NPY, we hypothesized that the concentration of NPY may play a role in the development of atypical FC. To investigate this hypothesis, we used a radioimmunoassay to measure the plasma NPY concentration of 60 children with FC (typical FC, n = 46; atypical FC, n = 14) and 56 age-matched controls. The atypical FC group had significantly lower concentrations of NPY than children with typical FC and controls (66.47 ± 19.11 pmol/L vs. 88.68 ± 28.50 pmol/L and 86.82 ± 22.66 pmol/L, respectively). Very low NPY levels were found in two patients; one patient (NPY level: 44.75 pmol/L) experienced prolonged seizures lasting for up to 1 hour and the other had recurrent seizures (three seizures) during the same febrile illness (NPY level: 33.53 pmol/L). These results suggest that patients with inadequate NPY inhibitory activity are more susceptible to atypical FC. © 2010 Elsevier. Source

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