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Wang C.-W.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Wang C.-W.,National Defense Medical Center | Huang C.-T.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Hsieh M.-C.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | And 18 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging | Year: 2015

Cephalometric analysis is an essential clinical and research tool in orthodontics for the orthodontic analysis and treatment planning. This paper presents the evaluation of the methods submitted to the Automatic Cephalometric X-Ray Landmark Detection Challenge, held at the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2014 with an on-site competition. The challenge was set to explore and compare automatic landmark detection methods in application to cephalometric X-ray images. Methods were evaluated on a common database including cephalograms of 300 patients aged six to 60 years, collected from the Dental Department, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan, and manually marked anatomical landmarks as the ground truth data, generated by two experienced medical doctors. Quantitative evaluation was performed to compare the results of a representative selection of current methods submitted to the challenge. Experimental results show that three methods are able to achieve detection rates greater than 80% using the 4 mm precision range, but only one method achieves a detection rate greater than 70% using the 2 mm precision range, which is the acceptable precision range in clinical practice. The study provides insights into the performance of different landmark detection approaches under real-world conditions and highlights achievements and limitations of current image analysis techniques. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

Tu H.-P.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Lee C.-P.,Graduate Institute of Medicine | Chiang T.-A.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Chiang T.-A.,Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology | And 3 more authors.
Addiction Biology | Year: 2012

Few studies have investigated whether genetic abnormalities predispose individuals to heavy betel quid (BQ) use. One of the major ingredients of BQ, arecoline, is known to affect the expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). We investigated the extent to which arecoline inhibits MAO-A expression and the role of MAO-A polymorphisms in BQ use in Taiwanese aborigines. Cytotoxicity assays, microarrays and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the effects of arecoline and areca nut extract (ANE) on cell viability and MAO-A expression in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. After identifying the effective concentrations of arecoline and ANE in vitro, we examined the in vivo effects of these compounds using a rat model system. Our results indicate that arecoline and ANE inhibit MAO-A expression both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we examined the correlation between plasma MAO-A activity and cumulative exposure to BQ in humans. We recruited 1307 aborigines from a large-scale community-based survey to determine whether MAO-A variants were associated with high BQ use and a preference for use with smoking or alcohol and whether gender bias existed. MAO-A expression was significantly downregulated by arecoline and ANE at 100-200 Âμg/ml and in rat whole brains on days 30 and 45. MAO-A activity levels in human plasma were positively correlated with the extent of BQ exposure, and individuals with at-risk alleles exhibited lower activity, although this result did not reach statistical significance. We found two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in aboriginal males [rs2283725, odds ratio (OR) = 2.04; rs5953210, OR = 2.03] and females (rs2283725, OR = 1.54; rs5953210, OR = 1.59) that were associated with heavy BQ use. Those individuals carrying at-risk alleles who drank alcohol were twice as likely to be heavy BQ users. However, the effects of these SNPs on BQ use were significant even after controlling for alcohol use. Our results suggest that two specific loci may confer a susceptibility to BQ abuse and affect MAO-A enzymatic activity. © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Huang R.-Y.,Tri Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center | Huang R.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Dental science | Lu S.-H.,A-Life Medical | Su K.-W.,Graduate Institute of Dental science | And 6 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2012

Periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by the destruction of the tooth-supporting structures. They are the most prevalent form of bone pathology in humans and act as a modifying factor of the systemic health of patients. Accumulating evidence has provided insight into mechanisms of periodontal inflammation revealing that oral pathogens induce inflammatory cascades, including a variety of cytokines produced by different cell types, which promotes host-mediated tissue destruction. Cytokine networks established in diseased periodontal tissues are extremely complex, and substances regulating immuno-inflammatory reactions and signaling pathways, in addition to traditional periodontal treatment, could potentially be targeted as an approach for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. Diacerein, a purified anthraquinone derivative, was derived originally from plants with profound anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Its wide range of biological activities have been applied and discussed for several decades; however, studies of diacerein have mainly concentrated on effects on joint-derived tissues/cells, which suggest a beneficial role in osteoarthritis treatment. Diacerein reduces association of the IL-1 receptor to form heterodimer complexes, repressing IL-1 and its related downstream events and impairing active IL-1 release due to the inhibition of the IL-1-converting enzyme (ICE). To date, there are no reports describing the therapeutic effect of diacerein for treatment of periodontitis. Given the involvement of inflammation and occurrence of tissue destruction in periodontal disease, we propose that diacerein might be a promising biological drug for periodontal disease due to its therapeutic advantages. In addition, we hypothesize that the underlying mechanisms might involve the capacity of diacerein to selectively inhibit signal transduction to affect the cytokine profiles and, consequently, produce the outcome of ameliorating disease breakdown. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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