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Kao J.-H.,Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine | Kao J.-H.,National Taiwan University Hospital
Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

Although safe and effective vaccines for hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been available for nearly three decades, this virus kills at least 600,000 people annually worldwide and remains the leading global cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because the HBV reverse transcriptase lacks a proofreading function, many HBV genotypes, subgenotypes, mutants, and recombinants exist. At least 10 HBV genotypes (HBV-A through J) with distinct geographic distributions have been identified; by definition, their complete genomic sequences diverge by more than 8%. HBV genotype is increasingly becoming recognized as an important factor in the progression and clinical outcome of HBV- induced disease. Infections by HBV-C or -D are significantly more likely to lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma than are infections by HBV-A or -B. Additionally, the hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion response to standard or pegylated interferon is more favorable in patients with HBV-A or -B than in those with HBV-C or -D. However, therapeutic responses to nucleos(t)ide analogues are generally comparable among HBV genotypes. In conclusion, genotyping of HBV is useful in identifying chronic hepatitis B patients who are at increased risk of disease progression, thereby enabling physicians to optimize antiviral therapy for these patients. © 2011 The Korean Association of Internal Medicine. Source

Yeh Y.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Ko W.-J.,Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine | Chan W.-S.,National Taiwan University | Tsai J.-C.,Far Eastern Memorial Hospital | Lin T.-Y.,Far Eastern Memorial Hospital
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND:: Anesthesia can become inadequate inadvertently or by misjudgment during surgery or emergence, and the surgical stress and pain stimulation will increase without adequate treatment. Overt stimulation may activate the sympathetic nervous system, increase the blood level of catecholamines, and lead to splanchnic arterial vasoconstriction. METHODS:: We divided 30 male Wistar rats into the following 3 groups: control, surgical stress and pain (SSP), and surgical stress and pain + dexmedetomidine (SSP + Dex). The rats received midline laparotomy to exteriorize a segment of terminal ileum for microcirculation examination by a full-field laser perfusion imager and sidestream dark-field video microscope on mucosa, muscle, and Peyer patch. The inspired concentration of isoflurane was decreased from 1.2% to 0.7% in SSP and SSP + Dex groups. In the SSP + Dex group, the rats received an initial loading dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg) and a maintenance infusion (0.5 μg • kg • h). RESULTS:: Dexmedetomidine prevented surgical stress and pain-related tachycardia and hypertension, and it attenuated the reduction of the microcirculatory blood flow intensity in intestinal mucosa (1100 ± 185 perfusion units [PU] vs 800 ± 105 PU, P = 0.001) and muscle (993 ± 208 PU vs 713 ± 92 PU, P < 0.001). Dexmedetomidine restored perfused small vessel density in intestinal mucosa and muscle. CONCLUSIONS:: We established a promising rat model to investigate the effect of surgical stress and pain stimulation on the intestinal microcirculation during light anesthesia. Using this rat model, we found that dexmedetomidine can normalize global hemodynamics and prevent the alteration of intestinal microcirculation. Copyright © 2012 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source

Hung M.-H.,Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine | Chen J.-S.,National Taiwan University Hospital
Journal of Thoracic Disease

In the recent decade, nonintubated-intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been extensively performed and evaluated. The indicated surgical procedures and suitable patient groups are steadily increasing. Perioperative anesthetic management presents itself as a fresh issue for the iatrogenic open pneumothorax, which is intended for unilateral lung collapse to create a steady surgical field, and the ensuing physiologic derangement involving ventilatory and hemodynamic perspectives. With appropriate monitoring, meticulous employment of regional anesthesia, sedation, vagal block, and ventilatory support, nonintubated VATS is proved to be a safe alternative to the conventional intubated general anesthesia. © Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company. Source

Lin C.-L.,Taipei Medical University Hospital | Lin C.-L.,National Chengchi University | Kao J.-H.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Kao J.-H.,Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)

Outcomes of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are heterogeneous. Estimates of annual incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are 2-10% and 1-3%, respectively. Several viral factors, including HBV genotype, viral load and specific viral mutations, have been associated with disease progression. Among these, HBV genotype is not only predictive of clinical outcomes but has also been associated with response to interferon treatment. Currently, at least 10 HBV genotypes and several subtypes have been identified; they have distinct geographic distribution. Acute infection with genotypes A and D results in higher rates of chronicity than genotypes B and C. Compared to genotype A and B cases, patients with genotypes C and D have lower rates of spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion; when this occurs, it tends to be delayed. HBV genotype C has a higher frequency of basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T/G1764A mutation, pre-S deletion and is associated with higher viral load than genotype B. Similarly, genotype D has a higher prevalence of BCP A1762T/G1764A mutation than genotype A. These observations suggest important pathogenic differences between HBV genotypes. These may contribute to more severe liver disease, including cirrhosis and HCC with genotypes C and D HBV infection. In addition, genotype A and B patients have better responses to interferon-based therapy than genotypes C and D, but there are few consistent differences for direct HBV antivirals. In conclusion, genotyping of chronic HBV infections can help practicing physicians identify those at risk of disease progression and determine optimal anti-viral therapy. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

Gau S.S.-F.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Gau S.S.-F.,Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine | Gau S.S.-F.,National Taiwan University | Huang W.-L.,National Taiwan University Hospital
Psychological Medicine

Background. Deficits in sustained attention and reaction time are core features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about attention performance in unaffected siblings. Hence, we examined sustained attention and reaction time in youths with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether impaired performance in attention tasks can be a potential endophenotype of ADHD. Method. We recruited 438 probands with clinical diagnosis of ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria, 180 unaffected siblings, and 173 healthy controls without lifetime ADHD. They were assessed using psychiatric interviews, Conners' Continuous Performance Test, and the tasks involving attention performance of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP), Reaction Time (RTI) and Match to Sample Visual Search (MTS). Multi-level models were used for data analysis. Results. Compared with the controls, probands with ADHD and unaffected siblings had significantly higher total misses, lower probability of hits in the RVP task and probands with ADHD performed worse in the RTI and MTS tasks after controlling for sex, age, co-morbidity, parental educational levels and IQ. The duration of methylphenidate use and IQ but not psychiatric co-morbidity or current use of methylphenidate were associated with deficits in sustained attention in probands with ADHD. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that attention performance assessed by the RVP task, but not the RTI or MTS tasks, of the CANTAB may be a useful cognitive endophenotype for ADHD genetic studies. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013. Source

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