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Hsu T.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Lan J.-L.,National Yang Ming University | Kao S.-H.,Chung Shan Medical University | Li S.-L.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Physiology

Antibodies against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was first discovered in the sera of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, the reactivity and specificity of anti-PCNA autoantibodies are still unclear. To investigate the property of anti-PCNA autoantibodies, we conducted an ELISA screening of the anti-PCNA autoantibodies in sera of SLE patients. Eighteen out of 191 SLE sera were found to be positive for anti-PCNA antibodies giving a frequency of nearly 10%. Among the positive sera, a sample with the highest titer of anti-PCNA autoantibody preferentially recognizes the wild-type PCNA as compared to the Y114A mutation which contains a single amino acid substitution at 114 and fails to form the toroidal structure. Moreover, the autoantibody purified from this serum identifies only the free PCNA in crude mammalian cell extracts but not other associated cellular components. This finding raises a possibility that immunostaining with the human anti-PCNA autoantibodies in previous studies might have only partially PCNAs in tissues. ©2010 by The Chinese Physiological Society. Source

Lo J.-F.,National Yang Ming University | Lo J.-F.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Yu C.-C.,National Yang Ming University | Yu C.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 11 more authors.
Cancer Research

Cancer-initiating cells (CIC) comprise a rare subpopulation of cells in tumors that are proposed to be responsible for tumor growth. Starting from CICs identified in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), termed head and neck cancer-initiating cells (HN-CIC), we determined as a candidate stemnessmaintaining molecule for HN-CICs the proinflammatory mediator S100A4, which is also known to be an inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. S100A4 knockdown in HN-CICs reduced their self-renewal capability and their stemness and tumorigenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, S100A4 overexpression in HNSCC cells enhanced their stem cell properties. Mechanistic investigations indicated that attenuation of endogenous S100A4 levels in HNSCC cells caused downregulation of Notch2 and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/pAKT along with upregulation of PTEN, consistent with biological findings. Immunohistochemical analysis of HNSCC clinical specimens showed that S100A4 expression was positively correlated with clinical grading, stemness markers, and poorer patient survival. Together, our findings reveal a crucial role for S100A4 signaling pathways in maintaining the stemness properties and tumorigenicity of HN-CICs. Furthermore, our findings suggest that targeting S100A4 signaling may offer a new targeted strategy for HNSCC treatment by eliminating HN-CICs. ©2010 AACR. Source

Chen S.Y.,Genetic Center | Chen S.Y.,Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science | Wan L.,Genetic Center | Wan L.,Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Applied Genetics

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease and can lead to deformities and severe disabilities, due to irreversible damage of tendons, joints, and bones. A previous study indicated that a DNA repair system was involved in the development of RA. In this study, we investigated the association of four N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG) gene polymorphisms (rs3176364, rs710079, rs2858056, and rs2541632) with susceptibility to RA in 384 Taiwanese individuals (192 RA patients and 192 control subjects). Our data show a statistically significant difference in genotype frequency distributions at rs710079 and rs2858056 SNPs between RA patients and control groups (P = 0.040 and 0.029, respectively). Our data also indicated that individuals with the GG genotype at rs2858056 SNP may have a higher risk of developing RA. In addition, compared with the haplotype frequencies between case and control groups, individuals with the GCGC haplotype appeared to be at a greater risk of RA progression (P = 0.003, OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.20-1.55). Our results suggest that rs710079 and rs2858056 polymorphisms and the GCGC haplotype in the MPG gene are associated with the risk of RA progression, and thus may be used as molecular markers of RA if they are confirmed by further research. Source

Chen C.-T.,Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science | Lin J.-G.,Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science | Lu T.-W.,National Taiwan University | Tsai F.-J.,Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine

The present study provides in vitro and in vivo evaluations of earthworm (Pheretima aspergilum) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In the in vitro study, we found the earthworm (EW) water extracts caused a marked enhancement of the nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells as well as the expressions of growth associated protein 43 and synapsin I. In the in vivo study, silicone rubber chambers filled with EW extracts were used to bridge a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect in rats. Eight weeks after implantation, the group receiving EW extracts had a much higher success percentage of regeneration (90%) compared to the control (60%) receiving the saline. In addition, quantitative histology of the successfully regenerated nerves revealed that myelinated axons in EW group at 31.25 μg/ml was significantly more than those in the controls (p < 0.05). These results showed that EW extracts can be a potential growth-promoting factor on regenerating peripheral nerves. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine. Source

Lin Y.-M.,Changhua Christian Hospital | Su C.-C.,Anatomic Pathology Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital | Su C.-C.,Tzu Chi University | Su W.-W.,Changhua Christian Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Physiology

The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the carcinogenesis of human breast tissue has been studied at the molecular level for more than two decades. In this study, we employed Western blotting to determine the presence of PKC isoforms in cancerous and normal breast tissues. The results indicate significant expression of a conventional PKC (PKCα) and two atypical PKCs (PKC ζ and λ/ι) in both breast tumors and adjacent normal breast tissue. For the α, ζ and λ/ι isoforms, the expression of individual isoforms was higher in the breast tumors than in the adjacent normal breast tissue. Although the correlation coefficient was low, significant linear correlation was found among the activities of the isoforms. The data suggest a potential new direction in cancer chemotherapy, namely the blockage of the signal transduction pathway of specific PKC isoforms. © 2012 by The Chinese Physiological Society and Airiti Press Inc. Source

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