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Huang Y.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science | Chen H.-C.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science | Chen H.-C.,Chang Gung University | Chiang C.-W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 5 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

To elucidate how microRNA (miRNA)-regulated networks contribute to the uncontrolled growth of hepatoma cells (HCCs), we identified several proliferation-related miRNAs by comparing miRNA expression patterns in clinical HCC samples and growth-arrested HepG2 cells. To explore the molecular functions targeted by these miRNAs, we classified genes differentially expressed in clinical HCC samples into six functional clusters based on their functional similarity. Using target enrichment analysis, we discovered that targets of three proliferation-related miRNAs - miR-101, miR-199a-3p and miR-139-5p - were significantly enriched in the 'transcription regulation' functional cluster. An interactome network consisting of these three miRNAs and genes in the 'transcriptional control' cluster revealed that all three miRNAs were highly connected hubs in the network. All three miRNA-centered subnetworks displayed characteristics of a two-layer regulatory architecture, with transcription factors and epigenetic modulators as the first neighbors and genes involved in cell-cycle progression as second neighbors. The overexpression of miR-101 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of transcription regulators and genes in cell-cycle progression and suppressed the proliferation and colony formation of HepG2 cells. This study not only provides direct experimental data to support the 'miRNA-centered two-layer regulatory network' model, but our results also suggest that such a combinatorial network model may be widely used by miRNAs to regulate critical biological processes. © 2012 The Author(s).


Lee T.-H.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Wu T.-S.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Tseng C.-P.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Tseng C.-P.,Chang Gung University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Genotyping of human papillomarvirus (HPV) is crucial for patient management in a clinical setting. This study accesses the combined use of broad-range real-time PCR and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis for rapid identification of HPV genotypes. Methods: Genomic DNA sequences of 8 high-risk genotypes (HPV16/18/39/45/52/56/58/68) were subject to bioinformatic analysis to select for appropriate PCR amplicon. Asymmetric broad-range real-time PCR in the presence of HRM dye and two unlabeled probes specific to HPV16 and 18 was employed to generate HRM molecular signatures for HPV genotyping. The method was validated via assessment of 119 clinical HPV isolates. Results: A DNA fragment within the L1 region was selected as the PCR amplicon ranging from 215-221 bp for different HPV genotypes. Each genotype displayed a distinct HRM molecular signature with minimal inter-assay variability. According to the HRM molecular signatures, HPV genotypes can be determined with one PCR within 3 h from the time of viral DNA isolation. In the validation assay, a 91% accuracy rate was achieved when the genotypes were in the database. Concomitantly, the HRM molecular signatures for additional 6 low-risk genotypes were established. Conclusions: This assay provides a novel approach for HPV genotyping in a rapid and cost-effective manner. © 2012 Lee et al.


Liu S.-C.,Chang Gung University | Tsang N.-M.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin Kou | Chiang W.-C.,Chang Gung University | Chang K.-P.,Head and Neck Surgery | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Radioresistance of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is associated with poor prognosis for patients with this form of cancer. Here, we found that NPC patients had increased serum levels of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and that higher LIF levels correlated with local tumor recurrence. Furthermore, in vitro studies with NPC cells and in vivo xenograft mouse studies demonstrated that LIF critically contributes to NPC tumor growth and radioresistance. Using these model systems, we found that LIF treatment activated the mTORC1/p70S6K signaling pathway, enhanced tumor growth, inhibited DNA damage responses, and enhanced radioresistance. Treatment with either soluble LIF receptor (sLIFR), a LIF antagonist, or the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reversed LIF-mediated effects, resulting in growth arrest and increased sensitivity to γ irradiation. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of human NPC biopsies revealed that LIF and LIFR were overexpressed in tumor cells and that LIF expression correlated with the presence of the activated p-p70S6K. Finally, we found that the EBV-encoded protein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) enhances LIF production. Together, our findings indicate that LIF promotes NPC tumorigenesis and suggest that serum LIF levels may predict local recurrence and radiosensitivity in NPC patients.


Wu C.-P.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Wu C.-P.,Chang Gung University | Hsiao S.-H.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Su C.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

CUDC-101 is the first small-molecule inhibitor designed to simultaneously inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) in cancer cells. Recently, in its first in human phase I study, CUDC-101 showed promising single agent activity against advanced solid tumors and favorable pharmacodynamic profile. However, the risk of developing drug resistance to CUDC-101 can still present a significant therapeutic challenge to clinicians in the future. One of the most common mechanisms of developing multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2. Together, they are able to reduce the efficacy and modify the pharmacological properties of anti-cancer agents, including many small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here, we have investigated the impact of ABCB1 and ABCG2 on the efficacy of CUDC-101 in human cancer cells. We revealed that although CUDC-101 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities against most cancer cell lines, the overexpression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 in cancer cells significantly reduced the activity of CUDC-101 against HDAC, EGFR and HER2, as well as its cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity. Moreover, we showed that CUDC-101 modulated the function of both transporters without affecting the protein expression of either ABCB1 or ABCG2. More importantly, our study provides support for the rationale of combining CUDC-101 with modulators of ABC drug transporters to improve drug efficacy and overcome multidrug resistance associated with the overexpression of ABCB1 and ABCG2. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Wu C.-J.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Yang C.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Chen Y.-H.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Chen C.-M.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | And 3 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2013

Background: Asthma is characterized as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with an enhanced TH2 response to inhaled allergens. CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells are controlled by the master transcription factor FoxP3 and strictly maintain peripheral immunotolerance. Epigenetic regulation of FoxP3 by DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, such as 5-azacytidine (Aza), can generate a steady supply of functional Treg cells. Therefore, we propose that Aza can augment Treg cells in vivo to prevent the pathogenesis of asthma. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with different doses of Aza. Airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, circulating titers of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and stimulating levels of TH2 cytokines from splenocytes were then determined. Cellular populations were examined by flow cytometry. PC61 antibody, which depletes CD25+ cells, was used to verify the role of CD25+ cells in Aza-induced tolerance. Results: Administration of Aza to OVA-sensitized mice diminished airway hyperreactivity, pulmonary eosinophilia, levels of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE in serum, and secretion of TH2 cytokines from OVA-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Percentages of CD25+ and FoxP3+ cells in the CD4+ cell population were notably increased in Aza-treated mice compared to sensitized control mice. Furthermore, the major symptoms of asthma were exacerbated by depleting CD25+ cells in Aza-treated mice. Conclusions: Aza may have applications as a novel clinical strategy to increase the production of Treg cells in order to modulate the airway inflammation associated with asthma. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | Chang Gung University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical science and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou
Type: | Journal: The Journal of investigative dermatology | Year: 2016

GPR56/ADGRG1 is a versatile adhesion G protein-coupled receptor with diverse biological functions. GPR56 expression is variably detected in human melanoma cell lines and correlates inversely with the metastatic potential of melanoma lesions. GPR56 associates with the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 on melanoma cell surface. GPR56 activation by immobilized CG4 mAb facilitates NTF dissociation in a CD9/CD81-dependent manner specifically inducing IL-6 production, which promotes cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, expression of GPR56-CTF alone recapitulates the antibody-induced receptor function, implicating a major role for the CTF in GPR56 activation and signaling. Analysis of site-directed mutant receptors attests the importance of the conserved N-terminal residues of the CTF for its self-activation. Finally, we show that the GPR56-induced signaling in melanoma cell is mediated by the G


Chiang N.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Hsiao C.-C.,Chang Gung University | Huang Y.-S.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Chen H.-Y.,Chang Gung University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding G proteincoupled receptor 56 (GPR56) lead to bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria (BFPP), an autosomal recessive disorder affecting brain development. The GPR56 receptor is a member of the adhesion-GPCR family characterized by the chimeric composition of a long ectodomain (ECD), a GPCR proteolysis site (GPS), and a sevenpass transmembrane (7TM) moiety. Interestingly, all identified BFPP-associated missense mutations are located within the extracellular region of GPR56 including the ECD, GPS, and the extracellular loops of 7TM. In the present study, a detailed molecular and functional analysis of the wild-type GPR56 and BFPP-associated point mutants shows that individual GPR56 mutants most likely cause BFPP via different combination of multiple mechanisms. These include reduced surface receptor expression, loss of GPS proteolysis, reduced receptor shedding, inability to interact with a novel protein ligand, and differential distribution of the 7TM moiety in lipid rafts. These results provide novel insights into the cellular functions of GPR56 receptor and reveal molecular mechanisms whereby GPR56 mutations induce BFPP. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Lin C.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Chiang C.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science | Tsai H.-J.,Graduate Institute of Biomedical science
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2016

Although they are primitive vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) have surpassed other animals as the most used model organisms based on their many advantages. Studies on gene expression patterns, regulatory cis-elements identification, and gene functions can be facilitated by using zebrafish embryos via a number of techniques, including transgenesis, in vivo transient assay, overexpression by injection of mRNAs, knockdown by injection of morpholino oligonucleotides, knockout and gene editing by CRISPR/Cas9 system and mutagenesis. In addition, transgenic lines of model fish harboring a tissue-specific reporter have become a powerful tool for the study of biological sciences, since it is possible to visualize the dynamic expression of a specific gene in the transparent embryos. In particular, some transgenic fish lines and mutants display defective phenotypes similar to those of human diseases. Therefore, a wide variety of fish model not only sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis in vivo but also provides a living platform for high-throughput screening of drug candidates. Interestingly, transgenic model fish lines can also be applied as biosensors to detect environmental pollutants, and even as pet fish to display beautiful fluorescent colors. Therefore, transgenic model fish possess a broad spectrum of applications in modern biomedical research, as exampled in the following review. © 2016 Lin et al.


PubMed | Medical University of South Carolina, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science and Mackay Memorial Hospital
Type: | Journal: Amino acids | Year: 2016

Post-translational modification (PTM) is an important mechanism in modulating a proteins structure and can lead to substantial diversity in biological function. Compared to other forms of PTMs such as phosphorylation, acetylation and glycosylation, the physiological significance of aminylation is limited. Aminylation refers to the covalent incorporation of biogenic/polyamines into target protein by calcium-dependent transglutaminases (TGs). The development of novel and more sensitive techniques has led to more proteins identified as tissue transglutaminase (TG2) substrates and potential targets for aminylation. Many of these substrate proteins play a role in cell signaling, cytoskeleton organization, muscle contraction, and inflammation. TG2 is well studied and widely expressed in a variety of tissues and will be the primary focus of this review on recent advance in transglutaminase-mediated aminylation.


PubMed | Graduate Institute of Biomedical science
Type: | Journal: Journal of biomedical science | Year: 2016

Although they are primitive vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) have surpassed other animals as the most used model organisms based on their many advantages. Studies on gene expression patterns, regulatory cis-elements identification, and gene functions can be facilitated by using zebrafish embryos via a number of techniques, including transgenesis, in vivo transient assay, overexpression by injection of mRNAs, knockdown by injection of morpholino oligonucleotides, knockout and gene editing by CRISPR/Cas9 system and mutagenesis. In addition, transgenic lines of model fish harboring a tissue-specific reporter have become a powerful tool for the study of biological sciences, since it is possible to visualize the dynamic expression of a specific gene in the transparent embryos. In particular, some transgenic fish lines and mutants display defective phenotypes similar to those of human diseases. Therefore, a wide variety of fish model not only sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis in vivo but also provides a living platform for high-throughput screening of drug candidates. Interestingly, transgenic model fish lines can also be applied as biosensors to detect environmental pollutants, and even as pet fish to display beautiful fluorescent colors. Therefore, transgenic model fish possess a broad spectrum of applications in modern biomedical research, as exampled in the following review.

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