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Ka S.-M.,Tri Service General Hospital | Ka S.-M.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Hsieh T.-T.,Tri Service General Hospital | Lin S.-H.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2011

The progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most frequent type of primary glomerulonephritis, is associated with high levels of mononuclear leukocyte infiltration into the kidney. These cells consist mainly of T cells and macrophages. Our previous study showed that a decoy receptor 3 (DCR3) gene therapy can prevent the development of a mouse autoimmune glomerulonephritis model by its potent immune modulating effects (Ka SM, Sytwu HK, Chang DM, Hsieh SL, Tsai PY, Chen A. J Am Soc Nephrol 18: 2473-2485, 2007). Here, we tested the hypothesis that DCR3 might prevent the progression of IgAN, an immune complex-mediated primary glomerulonephritis, by inhibiting T cell activation, renal T cell/macrophage infiltration, and protecting the kidney from apoptosis. We used a progressive IgAN (Prg-IgAN) model in B cell-deficient mice, because the mice are characterized by a dramatic proliferation of activated T cells systemically and progressive NF-B activation in the kidney. We treated the animals with short-term gene therapy with DCR3 plasmids by hydrodynamics-based gene delivery. When the mice were euthanized on day 21, we found that, compared with empty vector-treated (disease control) Prg-IgAN mice, DCR3 gene therapy resulted in 1) systemic inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation; 2) lower serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines; 3) improved proteinuria, renal function, and renal pathology (inhibiting the development of marked glomerular proliferation, crescent formation, glomerulosclerosis, and interstitial inflammation); 5) suppression of T cell and macrophage infiltration into the periglomerular interstitium of the kidney; and 5) a reduction in apoptotic figures in the kidney. On the basis of these findings, DCR3 might be useful therapeutically in preventing the progression of IgAN. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.


Chen Y.-H.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Yu J.,Genomics Research Center | Yu J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2012

Background: Parthenogenetic mammalian embryos were reported to die in utero no later than the 25-somite stage due to abnormal development of both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. Interestingly, it has been shown that parthenogenetic ICM cells tend to differentiate more into primitive endoderm cells and less into epiblast and ES cells. Hence we are interested in studying the molecular mechanisms underlying lineage defects of parthenotes. Results: We found that parthenote inner cell masses (ICMs) contained decreased numbers of Sox2+/Nanog+ epiblast cells but increased numbers of Gata4+ primitive endoderm cells, indicating an unusual lineage segregation. We demonstrate for the first time that the increased Gata4 level in parthenotes may be explained by the strong up-regulation of Fgf3 and Fgfr2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Fgfr2 activation by SU5402 in parthenotes restored normal Nanog and Gata4 levels without affecting Fgf3, indicating that Fgf3 is upstream of Fgfr2 activation. In parthenote trophectoderm, we detected normal Cdx2 but ectopic Gata4 expression and reduced Elf5 and Tbr2(Eomes) levels. Conclusions: Taken together, our work provides for the first time the insight into the molecular mechanisms of the developmental defects of parthenogenetic embryos in both the trophectoderm and ICM. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Lin K.-T.,Tri Service General Hospital | Lin C.-S.,Tri Service General Hospital | Lee S.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Huang W.-Y.,Tri Service General Hospital | Chang W.-K.,Tri Service General Hospital
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2016

Esophageal cancers account for majority of synchronous or metachronous head and neck cancers. This study examined the risk of esophageal cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and neck cancer patients using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From 1997 to 2010, we identified and analyzed 1851 PEG patients and 3702 sex-, age-, and index date-matched controls. After adjusting for esophagitis, esophagus stricture, esophageal reflux, and primary sites, the PEG cohort had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.09-4.09) of developing esophageal cancer than the controls. Primary tumors in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx were associated with higher incidence of esophageal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.49 (95% CI=1.01-1.88), 3.99 (95% CI=2.76-4.98), and 1.98 (95% CI=1.11-2.76), respectively. Head and neck cancer patients treated with PEG were associated with a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer, which could be fixed by surgically placed tubes. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Yang S.-M.,A-Life Medical | Ka S.-M.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Hua K.-F.,National Ilan University | Wu T.-H.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), systemic T cell activation, and macrophage infiltration in the kidney are implicated in the acceleration and progression of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most frequent type of primary glomerulonephritis. However, the pathogenic mechanism of IgAN is still little understood, and it remains a challenge to establish a specific therapeutic strategy for this type of glomerular disorder. Recently, we showed that antroquinonol (Antroq), a pure active compound from Antrodia camphorata mycelium, inhibits renal inflammation and reduces oxidative stress in a mouse model of renal fibrosis. But the anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory effects of Antroq on the acceleration and progression of primary glomerular disorders have not been determined. In this study, we show that Antroq administration substantially impeded the development of severe renal lesions, such as intense glomerular proliferation, crescents, sclerosis, and periglomerular interstitial inflammation, in mice with induced accelerated and progressive IgAN (AcP-IgAN). Further mechanistic analysis in AcP-IgAN mice showed that, early in the developmental stage of the AcP-IgAN model, Antroq promoted the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and inhibited the activation of T cells and NLRP3 inflammasome. Significantly improved proteinuria/renal function and histopathology in AcP-IgAN mice of an established stage supported potential therapeutic effects of Antroq on the disease. In addition, Antroq was shown to inhibit activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro by an IgA immune complex (IC) partly involving a reduced ROS production in IgA-IC-primed macrophages, and this finding may be helpful in the understanding of the mode of action of Antroq in the treated AcP-IgAN mice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Lu W.-H.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Lu W.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Lu W.-H.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Huang T.-C.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Hsieh K.-S.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital
Cardiology in the Young | Year: 2015

It is controversial to observe or close symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula in infants. We herein describe a medium-sized symptomatic congenital coronary artery fistula that underwent rapid spontaneous closure in an infant aged <3 months. © Cambridge University Press, 2014.


Hua K.-F.,National Ilan University | Chou J.-C.,National Ilan University | Ka S.-M.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Tasi Y.-L.,A-Life Medical | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

The NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a reactive oxygen species-sensitive multiprotein complex that regulates IL-1β maturation via caspase-1. It also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-related disease. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced by inflammatory stimuli and contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammation-related diseases. However, there is currently little known about the relationship between COX-2 and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we describe a novel role for COX-2 in regulating the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis in macrophages were reduced by pharmaceutical inhibition or genetic knockdown of COX-2. COX-2 catalyzes the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 and increases IL-1β secretion. Conversely, pharmaceutical inhibition or genetic knockdown of prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 reduced IL-1β secretion. The underlying mechanisms for the COX-2-mediated increase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation were determined to be the following: (1) enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced proIL-1β and NLRP3 expression by increasing NF-κB activation and (2) enhancement of the caspase-1 activation by increasing damaged mitochondria, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and release of mitochondrial DNA into cytosol. Furthermore, inhibition of COX-2 in mice in vivo with celecoxib reduced serum levels of IL-1β and caspase-1 activity in the spleen and liver in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. These findings provide new insights into how COX-2 regulates the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and suggest that it may be a new potential therapeutic target in NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Ho C.-L.,Taiwan Forestry Research Institute | Lin C.-Y.,National Ilan University | Ka S.-M.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Chen A.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Bamboo vinegar (BV), a natural liquid derived from the condensation produced during bamboo charcoal production, has been used in agriculture and as a food additive, but its application to immune modulation has not been reported. Here, we demonstrated that BV has anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. BV reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide levels in, and interleukin-6 secretion by, lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages without affecting tumor necrosis factor-α secretion and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. The mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of BV involved decreased reactive oxygen species production and protein kinase C-α/δ activation. Furthermore, creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol) was indentified as the major anti-inflammatory compound in BV. Impaired cytokine expression and NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation was seen in mice treated with creosol. These findings provide insights into how BV regulates inflammation and suggest that it may be a new source for the development of anti-inflammatory agents or a healthy supplement for preventing and ameliorating inflammation- and NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases, including metabolic syndrome. © 2013 Ho et al.


Chen Y.-H.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Yu J.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Yu J.,Chang Gung University
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2015

Epigenetic asymmetry has been shown to be associated with the first lineage allocation event in preimplantation development, that is, the formation of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages in the blastocyst. Since parthenogenesis causes aberrant segregation between the TE and ICM lineages, we examined several development-associated histone modifications in parthenotes, including those involved in (i) transcriptional activation [acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Ac) and lysine 14 (H3K14Ac), trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4Me3), and dimethylated histone H3 arginine 26 (H3R26Me2)] and (ii) transcriptional repression [trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27Me3), and mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A lysine 119 (H2AK119u1)]. Here, we report that in parthenotes, H3R26Me2 expression decreased from the morula stage, while expression patterns and levels of H3K9Ac, H3K27Me3, and H2AK119u1 were unchanged until the blastocyst stage; whereas H3K14Ac, H3K4Me3, and H3K9Me3 showed normal patterns and levels of expressions. Relative to the decrease of H3K9Ac in the ICM and increase in the TE of parthenotes, we detected reduced expression of TAT-interactive protein 60 acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase 1 deacetylase in the ICM and TE of parthenotes, respectively. Relative to the decrease of H3R26Me2, we also observed decreased expression of coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 methyltransferase and increased expression of the Wnt effector transcription factor 7L2 and miR-181c microRNA in parthenotes. Furthermore, relative to the decrease in H3K27Me3 and H2AK119u1, we found increased phosphorylation of Akt1 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in parthenogenetic TE. Therefore, our findings that histone signatures are impaired in parthenotes provide a mechanistic explanation for aberrant lineage segregation and TE defects. Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Yang S.-M.,Tri Service General Hospital | Ka S.-M.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Wu H.-L.,National Cheng Kung University | Yeh Y.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 12 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis: Chronic inflammatory processes have been increasingly shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we demonstrated that a lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin (THBD), which is known as THBD domain 1 (THBDD1) and which acts independently of protein C activation, neutralised an inflammatory response in a mouse model of sepsis. Here, therapeutic effects of gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-carried THBDD1 (AAV-THBDD1) were tested in a mouse model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Methods: To assess the therapeutic potential of THBDD1 and the mechanisms involved, we delivered AAV-THBDD1 (1011 genome copies) into db/db mice and tested the effects of recombinant THBDD1 on conditionally immortalised podocytes. Results: A single dose of AAV-THBDD1 improved albuminuria, renal interstitial inflammation and glomerular sclerosis, as well as renal function in db/db mice. These effects were closely associated with: (1) inhibited activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome; (2) promotion of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) nuclear translocation; and (3) suppression of mitochondria-derived apoptosis in the kidney of treated mice. Conclusions/interpretation: AAV-THBDD1 gene therapy resulted in improvements in a model of diabetic nephropathy by suppressing the NF-κB-NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory process, enhancing the NRF2 antioxidant pathway and inhibiting apoptosis in the kidney. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Chang Y.-P.,National Ilan University | Ka S.-M.,Graduate Institute of Aerospace and Undersea Medicine | Hsu W.-H.,A-Life Medical | Chen A.,Tri Service General Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a caspase-1-containing multi-protein complex that controls the release of IL-1β and plays important roles in the development of inflammatory disease. Here, we report that resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound naturally produced by plants, inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis in macrophages. Resveratrol inhibits the activation step of the NLRP3 inflammasome by suppressing mitochondrial damage. Resveratrol also induces autophagy by activating p38, and macrophages treated with an autophagy inhibitor are resistant to the suppressive effects of resveratrol. In addition, resveratrol administration mitigates glomerular proliferation, glomerular sclerosis, and glomerular inflammation in a mouse model of progressive IgA nephropathy. These findings were associated with decreased renal mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, reduced renal superoxide anion levels, and inhibited renal NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our data indicate that resveratrol suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation by preserving mitochondrial integrity and by augmenting autophagy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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