Graduate Institute

Genève, Switzerland

Graduate Institute

Genève, Switzerland
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Argentine Foreign Minister Susana Malcorra stressed the value of multilateralism during a trip to Geneva, Switzerland, this week, months before her country is due to host the WTO’s Eleventh Ministerial Conference (MC11). Her trip to the Swiss lakeside city included meeting with WTO Director-General Roberto Azevêdo and the chairs of the global trade body’s negotiating groups on Tuesday 24 April. “Minister Malcorra’s presence here today is a strong sign of Argentina’s commitment to our work and to a successful Ministerial Conference in December,” said Azevêdo following the meeting with her and the group chairs. “I have no doubt that all WTO members will be grateful for this, and that the opportunity for the host of the Conference to be briefed in full by the chairs of the negotiating groups will prove to be an important step in our preparations,” he added. WTO members are still working out which items might form a potential “package” of deliverables for the end-of-year meeting, which is scheduled for 11-14 December in Buenos Aires. Among the topics being looked at are domestic support in agriculture; disciplining harmful fisheries subsidies; trade in services, such as services facilitation; and e-commerce. Malcorra also took part in a ministerial meeting of the “Friends of E-commerce for Development” – the first such event of its kind – which came in the middle of the UN Conference on Trade and Development’s (UNCTAD) annual E-commerce week. Speaking at the Graduate Institute on Monday 24 April, Malcorra told an audience of trade policymakers, journalists, academics, and students that her country is working to be a “new, energetic voice” in the multilateral system, noting that doing so is part of Argentina’s larger strategy under President Mauricio Macri to reintegrate back into the world after years of inward-looking policies under the previous Kirchner administrations. “We believe, coming from the south, that having a system that brings all of us together, that is rules-based, that prescribes how we need to connect with each other, is the best way to defend our views, our rights, our space, our capacity to participate,” she said. She noted also that the years of relatively isolationist policies under the previous administration – collaborating with “just a few that thought in identical terms” – has had painful effects on her country, with now one-third of the population under the poverty line. This was why Buenos Aires has lately invested so much “in coming back to the world, in all possible configurations.” Along with hosting this December’s WTO ministerial conference, Argentina is also due to take on the G20 presidency, following Germany’s turn. This year’s G20 leaders’ summit will be held on 7-8 July in Hamburg. Malcorra said on Monday that hosting the WTO gathering had been planned partly as a way to facilitate preparations for a successful G20 leaders’ summit next year. “We felt that this was a way to really create a virtuous path to a good G20. Now we’ve learned that the world is changing and now facing the challenge of hosting the ministerial conference in Buenos Aires and how to make it a successful one,” said the Argentine official. Among the issues flagged by Malcorra as areas that may have promise for an MC11 outcome were agriculture, services facilitation, and e-commerce, noting also the value of supporting micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises’ efforts to integrate into the global marketplace (MSMEs). All of these “should increase the pie of opportunities. We have to move away from the zero-sum game,” she said, pledging that Argentina will push in the WTO discussions for stepping “backward from this brinkmanship that takes us, in our view, nowhere.” “We still have a long way to go with some of the pending issues, but we also have some new issues that will help us, if well-defined, build an agenda going forward that will be a 21st century agenda,” she said. She also referred to the debate over finding “creative” ways to negotiate multilaterally, given the difficulties seen in the past to reach deals at the global level. “Unless we put all of our energy into this and we really engage, and we overcome the incredible frustration which comes from trying to arrive to a consensus agreement – unless we overcome that, we run the risk of a world that goes backwards, and we know what it is to go backward.” Meanwhile, although Argentina is still determining which issues will formally be part of next year’s G20 priorities, she did suggest that “jobs and education will be at the center,” in light of the global context on trade, development, and inclusiveness, and said that Buenos Aires will work to bring in the “perspective from the south” to make the G20 discussion even broader.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.ictsd.org

7 May, Bonn, Germany. IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETS AND NON-MARKET PROVISIONS IN THE PARIS AGREEMENT. This meeting is being organised by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and will be the fifth meeting of the project “Implementation of markets and non-market provisions in the Paris Agreement.” The informal discussions will focus on Article 6, looking at how its terms can be defined and what these alternatives can mean in practice. Expected participants include carbon market negotiators. Please note that attendance is by invitation only. For more information on this meeting, please visit the ICTSD website. 9-11 May, Geneva, Switzerland. GIS FOR A SUSTAINABLE WORLD CONFERENCE. This annual event is being jointly organised by the United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) and Esri. The conference will focus on how Esri’s ArcGIS platform empowers the international community to work toward the goals set forth in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. To learn more and to register, please visit the Esri website. 10 May, Geneva, Switzerland. 10TH ANNUAL UPDATE ON WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. This event will be held at the Graduate Institute and will consist of an overview session followed by a roundtable discussion. The event will cover the WTO’s dispute-related activities and developments over the past year. Its speakers will include WTO Deputy Director-General Karl Brauner, South African WTO Ambassador and Dispute Settlement Body Chairperson Xavier Carim, and Appellate Body Chairperson Thomas Graham, among others. To learn more and to register, please visit the Graduate Institute website. 11 May, London, UK, and online. REFUGEES: ARE JOBS THE ANSWER? This event is organised by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and will feature an expert panel to discuss the creation of economic opportunities for refugees. Specifically, the panel will discuss the possibility of creating Special Economic Zones (SEZ) where business and trade laws could be revised to allow refugees to work within the zone. This event is open to the public and will be streamed online. To learn more and register, or watch online, visit the ODI website. An updated list of forthcoming WTO meetings is posted here. Please bear in mind that dates and times of WTO meetings are often changed, and that the WTO does not always announce the important informal meetings of the different bodies. Unless otherwise indicated, all WTO meetings are held at the WTO, Centre William Rappard, rue de Lausanne 154, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland, and are open to WTO Members and accredited observers only. 9 May: Working Group on Trade and Transfer of Technology 15 May, Washington, US, and online. FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY AFTER THE FRENCH ELECTION. This webcast event is being organised by the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE) and will have two discussion panels comprised of PIIE senior fellows and European experts. The panels will discuss what the 7 May French election results mean for the wider EU economy and outline recommendations for ensuring the EU’s future economic stability. This event is open to the public and will be steamed online. To learn more and watch online, visit the PIIE website. 19 May, Geneva, Switzerland, and online. TALKING DISPUTES |THE RUSSIA – PIGS (EU) DISPUTE. This event is being jointly organised by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and WTI Advisors (WTIA). This event will focus on the recent World Trade Organization (WTO) Appellate Body ruling in the Russia – Pigs (EU) dispute, presenting the key findings and engaging in a discussion of the legal and policy implications, particularly regarding trade and regulatory cooperation. This event is open to the public and will be streamed online. To learn more and to register, or to watch online, please visit the ICTSD website. 23 May, Stockholm, Sweden. TRADE AND CLIMATE ACTION POST-PARIS: LEVERAGING SYNERGIES. This event is being organised jointly by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and Sida, Sweden’s development policy agency. The event will examine the relationship between trade, sustainable development, and climate action in the context of the UN’s Paris Agreement on climate change. The objective is to have a discussion over ways trade policy can support climate action, along with ensuring that efforts to support the latter objective do not have overly trade-distorting effects. For more information, including an event programme, please visit the ICTSD website. 5-8 June, Manila, Philippines. ASIA CLEAN ENERGY FORUM 2017. This event is being jointly organised by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Korea Energy Agency. The aim of this forum will be to share best practices in policy, technology, and finance regarding clean energy, energy efficiency, and energy access, with the event having as its theme “The Future is Here: Achieving Universal Access and Climate Targets.” To learn more and to register, please visit the event website. 26-28 September, Geneva, Switzerland. WTO PUBLIC FORUM 2017. This year’s edition of the WTO’s outreach event will have as its theme “Trade: Behind the Headlines.” The meeting will aim to look at the real-life implications of trade, as opposed to rhetoric, and will also look at how trade can support the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and related issues. A call for proposals is currently open for those who wish to organise sessions at this year’s forum, with a due date of 4 June 2017. To learn more, please visit the WTO website.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.ictsd.org

28 April, Geneva, Switzerland. G20 AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT REGIME: FROM CRISIS MANAGEMENT TO VISION AND LEADERSHIP? This dialogue is jointly organised by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICSTD) and the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Geneva office. The focus of the dialogue will be on the trade and investment agenda for the G20, first reviewing and reflecting on this year’s agenda and then moving to the prospects for 2017 and 2018. The sessions will be followed by a roundtable discussion on the interlinkages between trade and climate policy, specifically within the context of the G20’s work. Please note that attendance for this event is by invitation only. For more information, please visit the ICTSD website. 2 May, London, UK. CHATHAM HOUSE PRIMER: THE VOTE FOR BREXIT. This Chatham House event will feature as its guest speaker Matthew Goodwin, co-author of “Brexit: Why Britain Voted to leave the European Union,” to examine what factors motivated a majority of British voters to vote for leaving the EU. The talk will address topics ranging from the driving forces behind Euroscepticism and possible Brexit deals that would win the approval of those who voted to leave. To learn more and to register, please visit the Chatham House website. 1-3 May, Yokohama, Japan. GLOBAL THINK TANK SUMMIT 2017. This two-day summit is jointly organised by the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) and the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) of the University of Pennsylvania. This conference aims to bring together policymakers and think tank representatives from dozens of organisations across the world to discuss key policy issues of today. Please note that attendance is by invitation only. For more information on this summit, please visit the ADBI website. An updated list of forthcoming WTO meetings is posted here. Please bear in mind that dates and times of WTO meetings are often changed, and that the WTO does not always announce the important informal meetings of the different bodies. Unless otherwise indicated, all WTO meetings are held at the WTO, Centre William Rappard, rue de Lausanne 154, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland, and are open to WTO Members and accredited observers only. 3 May: Council for Trade in Services – Special Session 10 May, Geneva, Switzerland. 10TH ANNUAL UPDATE ON WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. This event will be held at the Graduate Institute and will consist of an overview session followed by a roundtable discussion. The event will cover the WTO’s dispute-related activities and developments over the past year. Its speakers will include WTO Deputy Director-General Karl Brauner, South African WTO Ambassador and Dispute Settlement Body Chairperson Xavier Carim, and Appellate Body Chairperson Thomas Graham, among others. To learn more and to register, please visit the Graduate Institute website. 11 May, London, UK, and online. REFUGEES: ARE JOBS THE ANSWER? This event is organised by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and will feature an expert panel to discuss the creation of economic opportunities for refugees. Specifically, the panel will discuss the possibility of creating Special Economic Zones (SEZ) where business and trade laws could be revised to allow refugees to work within the zone. This event is open to the public and will be streamed online. To learn more and register, or watch online, visit the ODI website. 19-20 May, Singapore. THIRD CONFERENCE ON GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS, TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT. This conference is being organised by the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) and the World Bank Group and will feature as its guest speakers Shang-Jin Wei from the Columbia Business School and CEPR and David Chor from the National University of Singapore. The aim of this conference will be to foster new ideas and research on the subject of global value chains. To learn more and to register, please visit the World Bank website. 23 May, Stockholm, Sweden. TRADE AND CLIMATE ACTION POST-PARIS: LEVERAGING SYNERGIES. This event is being organised jointly by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and Sida, Sweden’s development policy agency. The event will examine the relationship between trade, sustainable development, and climate action in the context of the UN’s Paris Agreement on climate change. The objective is to have a discussion over ways trade policy can support climate action, along with ensuring that efforts to support the latter objective do not have overly trade-distorting effects. For more information, including an event programme, please visit the ICTSD website. 26-28 September, Geneva, Switzerland. WTO PUBLIC FORUM 2017. This year’s edition of the WTO’s outreach event will have as its theme “Trade: Behind the Headlines.” The meeting will aim to look at the real-life implications of trade, as opposed to rhetoric, and will also look at how trade can support the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and related issues. A call for proposals is currently open for those who wish to organise sessions at this year’s forum, with a due date of 4 June 2017. To learn more, please visit the WTO website.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.ictsd.org

12 May, Bonn, Germany. MITIGATION ACTION THROUGH ARTICLE 6 OF THE PARIS AGREEMENT. This event on the sidelines of the mid-year UN climate talks is being co-hosted by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES). Negotiators on Article 6 of the Paris Agreement form selected countries and experts on carbon markets will discuss what lies ahead for the 24th session of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP24). Please note that to access the venue for this event, UNFCCC accreditation is necessary. For more information, please visit the ICTSD website. 15 May, Washington, US, and online. FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMY AFTER THE FRENCH ELECTION. This webcast event is being organised by the Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE) and will have two discussion panels comprised of PIIE senior fellows and European experts. The panels will discuss what the 7 May French election results mean for the wider EU economy and outline recommendations for ensuring the EU’s future economic stability. This event is open to the public and will be steamed online. To learn more and watch online, visit the PIIE website. 16 May, Washington, US. NEW GLOBAL AND REGIONAL TRENDS: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS FOR LATIN AMERICA. This event is being hosted by the Brookings Global- CERES Economic and Social Policy in Latin America Initiative and will feature a panel to discuss the implications of new global and regional trends. This panel will look at specifically at political and macroeconomic trends in the region and their ramifications across various policy areas. To learn more and to resister, please visit the Brookings Institution website. 17 May, Geneva, Switzerland. REFLECTIONS ON PROGRESS. This event is being organised by the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies and will feature as its guest speaker Kemal Derviş, Vice President and Director for Global Economy and Development at the Brookings Institution, for a discussion on global growth and inequality. To learn more and to register, please visit the Graduate Institute website. An updated list of forthcoming WTO meetings is posted here. Please bear in mind that dates and times of WTO meetings are often changed, and that the WTO does not always announce the important informal meetings of the different bodies. Unless otherwise indicated, all WTO meetings are held at the WTO, Centre William Rappard, rue de Lausanne 154, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland, and are open to WTO Members and accredited observers only. 17 May: Committee on Trade and Development 17 May: Committee on Trade and Development – Dedicated Session on Small Economies 18 May: Committee on Budget, Finance, and Administration 19 May, Geneva, Switzerland, and online. TALKING DISPUTES |THE RUSSIA – PIGS (EU) DISPUTE. This event is being jointly organised by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and WTI Advisors (WTIA). This event will focus on the recent World Trade Organization (WTO) Appellate Body ruling in the Russia – Pigs (EU) dispute, presenting the key findings and engaging in a discussion of the legal and policy implications, particularly regarding trade and regulatory cooperation. This event is open to the public and will be livestreamed online as an interactive webcast, with viewers able to submit questions for the panel. To learn more and to register, or to watch online, please visit the ICTSD website. 22 May, Geneva, Switzerland. REFORMING FOSSIL FUEL SUBSIDIES THROUGH THE WTO AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS. This workshop is being organised by Climate Strategies, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). This workshop will feature a panel of representatives from IISD, the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), SEI, SWP, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to discuss the varied nature of fossil fuel subsidies and what this means for agreements of different configurations. For more information, please visit the ICTSD website. 31 May – 12 July, online. MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSE: GREENING CONSUMPTION & PRODUCTION. This six-week facilitated course is being offered by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in partnership with the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAP) Forum and The Nature Conservancy. Topics for the course will cover green consumption and production including greening key production sectors, sustainable commodity supply chains, and mainstreaming biodiversity into development planning. The course is aimed at policymakers and practitioners working in the area of sustainable consumption and production and is available in English, Spanish, and French. To learn more and to register, please visit the Nature Conservancy website. 5-8 June, Manila, Philippines. ASIA CLEAN ENERGY FORUM 2017. This event is being jointly organised by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Korea Energy Agency. The aim of this forum will be to share best practices in policy, technology, and finance regarding clean energy, energy efficiency, and energy access, with the event having as its theme “The Future is Here: Achieving Universal Access and Climate Targets.” To learn more and to register, please visit the event website. 7-9 June, Geneva, Switzerland. INNOVATE 4 WATER: A MATCHMAKING FORUM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BRINGING TOGETHER INNOVATORS, INVESTORS, AND EXPERTS. This two-day forum is being organised by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) GREEN, WaterVent, and WIPO GREEN partner Waterpreneurs. The aim of this forum will be to bring together individuals and organizations working in the water sector and create a space for entrepreneurs in this field to meet collaborators in related areas. To learn more and to register, please visit the WIPO GREEN website.


The International Association of HealthCare Professionals is pleased to welcome S. Faye Snyder, PsyD to their organization of prestigious health care professionals and to direct readers to her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare. Dr. Snyder trained as a Psychologist and Marriage and Family Therapist and specialized in trauma, family systems, parenting, attachment, relationship skills, personal ethics, forensic evaluations (especially accusations of parental alienation), and difficult cases. Dr. Snyder holds over twenty years of experience in her field and is currently practicing in Granada Hills, California, where she is the Founder and Clinical Director of the Parenting and Relationship Counseling Foundation (PaRC). Dr. Snyder graduated from the California Graduate Institute, now the Chicago School of Professional Psychology, becoming a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in 1992. She subsequently completed her postgraduate training as a clinical psychologist at Ryokan College of Psychology, and is trained or certified in Sex Offender Treatment, Anger Management, and Domestic Violence. Dr. Snyder became a researcher on the causes of psychopathology, including a debate she calls The War on the Researchers, between geneticists and neuroscientists. Dr. Snyder became concerned that the debate was unrecognized while there are two opposing messages in the field which are not being reconciled. As a result of 20 years researching the issue, she formulated The Causal Theory, in which she has take the best of the research and formulated a proposal on how personality and behavior are driven. Dr. Snyder attributes her success to a strong desire to share her concerns with researchers and other psychologists. Dr. Snyder previously taught developmental psychology at the California State University, Northridge. She is the author of six books, including The Manual: The Definitive Book on Parenting and the Causal Theory (2012) and her last book, The Search for the Unholy Grail: The Race to Prove that Personality and Behaviors Are Inherent (2016). Dr. Snyder stays current in her field by maintaining professional memberships, including the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, the Los Angeles County Psychological Association, the California Association of Marriage and Family Therapists, and the California Association of of Anger Management Professionals, of which she is the current vice president. For diversion, Dr. Snyder enjoys spending time with her young grandson. Learn more about Dr. S. Faye Snyder here: http://www.drfayesnyder.com/ and http://www.iahcp.com/8138003.html and be sure to read her upcoming publication in the Worldwide Leaders in Healthcare.


Haines A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Alleyne G.,Pan American Health Organization | Kickbusch I.,Graduate Institute | Dora C.,Interventions for Healthy Environments Unit
The Lancet | Year: 2012

In 2012, world leaders will meet at the Rio+20 conference to advance sustainable development - 20 years after the Earth Summit that resulted in agreement on important principles but insufficient action. Many of the development goals have not been achieved partly because social (including health), economic, and environmental priorities have not been addressed in an integrated manner. Adverse trends have been reported in many key environmental indicators that have worsened since the Earth Summit. Substantial economic growth has occurred in many regions but nevertheless has not benefited many populations of low income and those that have been marginalised, and has resulted in growing inequities. Variable progress in health has been made, and inequities are persistent. Improved health contributes to development and is underpinned by ecosystem stability and equitable economic progress. Implementation of policies that both improve health and promote sustainable development is urgently needed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The leadership at Cummings Graduate Institute for Behavioral Health Studies is proud to announce the launch of their new, interactive website featuring fresh content, easy navigation and a simple online admissions process that will undoubtedly have a positive impact on new students. As they gear up for second semester enrollment, Melissa McGurgan, Director of Student Services stated, “Our vision, for integrated care to become the norm rather than the exception, is a critical one. We know that for our vision to be realized, we must prepare innovators who have a drive to disrupt the norms in health care delivery; to pioneer into unexplored territory and establish truly patient-centered care models. Our graduates will be expected to get results, and we give our students the skills to exceed marketplace expectations.” At the Cummings Institute, the Biodyne model is the nucleus. The word Biodyne is composed of two classical Greek words; bio, meaning “life,” and dyne, meaning “change.” The goal of the Biodyne Model is life change. As an Institute, CGI strives for a “life change” – for their leadership and faculty, for their students, for their patients, for their providers, and for the health care system. Dr. Cara English, CEO for Cummings Institute also weighed in, stating, “One is never the same upon graduation. Through our Values, CGI demonstrates to our students, faculty, staff, partners, and larger community that we are a disruptive institution, aimed at making a difference for all those who interact with us.” Visit their new website and learn more about how CGI is #disruptinghealthcare. About the Founder Dr. Cummings is a visionary who, for half a century not only was able to foresee the future of professional psychology, but also helped create it. A former president of the American Psychological Association (APA) as well as its Divisions 12 (Clinical Psychology) and 29 (Psychotherapy), he formed a number of national organizations in response to trends. Since organized psychology resisted these inevitable changes, Dr. Cummings blazed the way, expecting others would follow. He launched the professional school movement by founding the four campuses of the California School of Professional Psychology that established clinicians as full-fledged members of the faculty. As chief of mental health for the Kaiser Permanente health system in the 1950s, he wrote and implemented the first prepaid psychotherapy contract in the era when psychotherapy was an exclusion rather than a covered benefit in health insurance. Presently, Dr. Cummings resides in Reno, Nevada with the one love of his life, Dorothy Mills Cummings. Together in 2015 they celebrated their 67th wedding anniversary. They maintain a winter home in Scottsdale, Arizona. He continues as Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno, and active president of the Cummings Foundation for Behavioral Health. He serves as the Vice Chair for the Board of Directors of Cummings Graduate Institute for Behavioral Health Studies.


News Article | November 17, 2015
Site: www.theenergycollective.com

Laura Diaz Anadon, Assistant Professor in Public Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and Visiting Senior Lecturer in Science, Technology, Innovation and Public Policy at the Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy at University College London, will present a public lecture on November 24 at the Graduate Institute in Geneva, Switzerland from 18:30 – 20:00. 1. What role can technological innovation play in moving society toward sustainable development? Technological innovation can play a central goal to achieving all 17 of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by the governments of 193 countries in September 2015.  Innovation is both its own goal (#9), and key to addressing all other goals in a cost-effective manner.  For example, innovation in agricultural technologies can mitigate hunger (goal 2) and protect ecosystems (goal 15); innovation in water technologies can increase the availability of water and sanitation for all (goal 6) while helping conserve marine resources (goal 14); and innovation in energy technologies has the potential to ensure access to affordable and reliable energy (goal 7), to mention a few.  At the same time, technology also has the potential for great harm, as we see with the case of fossil energy technologies and global warming, or with the case of using antimicrobial drugs, which can build resistance and render them ineffective. So technological innovation poses both great opportunities and challenges. 2. What are the main challenges with respect to innovation in energy technologies? As part of a project with over 30 multidisciplinary researchers that started 4 years ago, we came up with four key challenges common to harnessing technological innovation for sustainable development that are not specific to energy. The first challenge is that technology innovation is a complex and non-linear process. It is complex in the sense that it does not only entail invention (or R&D) but it also entails experimentation in niche markets, adaptation, and widespread but also selection, adoption, adaptation and retirement. And it is non-linear in the sense that these processes are interlinked and widespread adoption can lead to insights that spur adaptation and further invention.  In practice this means that actors interested in utilizing innovation cannot limit themselves to one part of innovation. The second challenge partly stems from the first one. The wide range of activities that contribute to innovation almost always result in a multiplicity of actors, often acting at various levels.  Actors may include final users, local governments, local and transnational firms, national governments, and international organizations.  This means that coordination of actors and activities is a major challenge, as has been observed in cases such as cookstoves to replace traditional biomass for 1.7 billion people. The third challenge is that technologies are heterogeneous, so the partnerships, incentives and approaches that work to, for instance, residential solar panels are not the most appropriate for centralized power generation, for instance. In fact, our research has shown that there are often more commonalities between the processes that can support innovation in technologies across sectors than within sectors. To give an extreme and somewhat obvious example: a ceramic water filter is more similar to a cookstove than a carbon capture and storage plant in terms of the processes and mechanisms for moving from initial invention of these technologies through to widespread use. For this reason, its extremely valuable to learn across sectors and not only look at examples from energy for example. And fourth, people in low-income countries and poor people more generally have a lower ability to pay and thus exert less market-pull and political influence to guide innovation to meet their needs.  This is a major problem in the context of sustainable development. And to answer the question a little more specifically, I will also mention a challenge that may be more pressing in some parts of the energy sector.This more energy-specific challenge is that electricity or liquid fuels are commodities (unlike drugs that cure new diseases, for instance).  So for grid-connected  electricity, new technologies must compete with others that are not only creating  the same product, but also have multi-decadal lifetimes, and have a system of regulations and actors interested in preventing change. Moreover, the price of the incumbent technologies does not include the health and environmental costs it is imposing on society.  This presents an additional hurdle for some energy technologies. 3. Can you give us an example of a successful and of a non-successful adoption of energy technology by a developing country? This is a very difficult, and perhaps impossible question to answer.  Assessing success depends on the criteria used to measure success. If by success one refers to the emergence of a local manufacturing industry that exports internationally, then the case of solar PV manufacturing in China would be successful.  Interestingly, it is a case in which the central government played a relatively minor role at the beginning, as Christian Binz and I are showing in current work. If one refers to being at the forefront of science and technology in that particular area or pollution caused by the manufacturing process, then it the case of solar PV in China may not (at least as of now) be such a success. Similarly, the case of wind power in China and India shows the difficulty in talking about success without some qualification. In a paper with Kavita Surana we show that India and China both started promoting wind power development and manufacturing in the mid-1980s, although with very different approaches. India relied more on the private sector and China on state-owned enterprises.  Depending on the metric that one uses, one could conclude that one, the other, both or none were more successful. Our research showed that there are tradeoffs related to the type of actors engaged in the promotion of an industry, the timing and magnitude of resources mobilized, and reliance on domestic versus foreign resources. 4. What additional research is needed to better enable energy innovation? There is a breadth of experiences of policies or interventions across various sectors and technologies.  But to use these experiences there are several areas that still need investigation. First, it is very hard to determine what one can learn or transfer without a common framework to help us understand the process of technology innovation and the characteristics that make different technologies and circumstances comparable.  In our project we developed a model and conceptual framework aimed at supporting such comparative analysis, but much more work is necessary to test and refine this framework. Second, we know surprisingly little about the impact of various interventions within specific sectors and technologies.  For example, in the area of R&D investments, we know very little about the effectiveness of different type of mechanisms (grants, prizes, collaborative agreements, national labs) across different dimensions (fundamental discoveries and inventions, patents, spin-offs, publications, human capacity development, etc). Thus, program evaluation is an important area for future research.  There is emerging work even in the area of energy, including work by colleagues at the Kennedy School, but more is needed. Third, even though we know from research that technology users cannot be an ‘afterthought’, we need to better understand what types of partnerships with what resources are more effective at meeting the most pressing needs on the ground. A subset of this gap is our poor understanding of how different actors can promote invention and adoption of energy technologies that address the needs in developing countries, instead of relying on adapting existing technologies. The reason for this ‘invention’ gap is of course related to the lack of market pull and to some extent empowerment, but it is an unresolved problem. Fourth, through our multidisciplinary project we learnt about interventions that took place in health that were unknown to people in energy, and we discovered that some academic disciplines may have already done research in particular areas that other relevant disciplines or sectors may now know about. For example, behavioral economists has been active in energy, economists looking at intellectual property have been active in health. Innovation systems and historians scholars have looked at procurement in the case of defense and IT, etc.  Given the rewards posed on specialization, it is hard for scholars to know about all relevant literature. For practitioners the task is also daunting, without some way to digest the vast literature. 5. What can the policy community do about it? The policy community can work as the bridge builder between the research community and the technology users.  Given the wide range of actors and activities required for innovation in a particular technology to take place, coordination is a crucial role. In our work we have seen that, depending on their resources, different policy organizations can act not just as the funders of initiatives, but (among other topics) also as conveners of various actors, as providers of legitimacy, and as partners in collaborative efforts, as providers of information (which includes putting to use the results of research) to reduce transaction costs, etc. As we mentioned, there is little funding aimed at developing technologies to address specific needs in developing countries.  The policy community can also foster research along the lines mentioned above!  In summary, policy makers need to really grapple with how to re-orient innovation systems to better meet the needs of vulnerable populations including both the poor today and future generations who lack a voice in current innovation systems.


White N.,Graduate Institute
Journal of Political Ecology | Year: 2014

Since 2011, elephant poaching and the illegal ivory trade have been labelled a "serious threat to peace and security". Rigorous military training and weapons have been provided to rangers, national armies have been deployed in protected areas, and shoot-to-kill policies have been (re-)adopted. Within the framework of political ecology, the article critically approaches this "war" for Africa's elephants. Adopting the tools of discourse analysis, it explores how such violence has been legitimized by the "transnational conservation community" and, in turn, how this has been contested by other actors. It argues that the "war" has been legitimized by drawing on two broader threat discourses - the ivory-crime-terror linkage and the 'China-Africa' threat. Through the discursive creation of a boundary object, poaching has 'become' a human concern that appeals to actors typically outside the conservation community. In the final Section, the case of the Lord's Resistance Army's poaching activities in Garamba National Park is explored, to show how the knowledge upon which judgements are made and decisions are taken is ahistorical, depoliticized and based on a series of untenable assumptions.


News Article | October 27, 2016
Site: co.newswire.com

Cummings Graduate Institute for Behavioral Health Studies, the only doctoral-level Institute dedicated to integrated behavioral healthcare, held its first Commencement Ceremony on Monday, December 7th, 2015, sending the inaugural class of five degree candidates out into the world as Doctors of Behavioral Health. Each new Doctor of Behavioral Health was presented with a white coat by Dr. Nicholas Cummings. NIBHQ provisional accreditation was granted to the Institute's DBH program in 2015.

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