Fletcher T.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG
JCT CoatingsTech | Year: 2013
Legislative pressure is driving the trend to more environmental friendly coating systems. It is expected that ion-exchanged silica pigments will be turned to more and more as the preferred nontoxic method of corrosion control in all types of coatings, as the desire to couple high anticorrosive performance with environmental awareness intensifies. IES pigments have already become established as the leading nontoxic pigments in chromate-free coil coating systems. Essential to this success is their high performance and efficiency in even modern primer/topcoat systems, as well the promising results obtained over more than 10 years of outdoor weathering trials. Ion-exchanged silica technology now has a long track record of successful use in coil coatings as a nontoxic alternative to strontium chromate. Inhibitive mechanisms of action of these pigments involve the formation of protective films at anode and cathode sites. The effectiveness of this mechanism can, in turn, be influenced by the silica structure, the type of cation, and the proportion of conversion of the available silanol groups existing at the silica surface. New developments in ion-exchanged silica technology have been shown to provide improved anticorrosive performance under accelerated testing compared to the established and traditional pigment types, providing motivation to perform longer-term outdoor exposure trials. One particular grade from this development-IES Type D-is being commercialized. It is expected that new developments in IES technology will continue to support high standards of corrosion inhibition in environmentally friendly anticorrosive coating systems.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2013.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 11.92M | Year: 2014
To meet short term European 20-20-20 objectives and long term targets of European Energy Roadmap 2050, an energy paradigm shift is needed for which biomass conversion into advanced biofuels is essential. This new deal has challenges in catalyst development which so far hinders implementation at industrial level: Firstly, biomass is much more complex and reactive than conventional feedstock; secondly development of such catalysts is traditionally done by lengthy empirical approaches. FASTCARD aims at: -Developing a novel rational design of nano-catalysts for better control; optimised based on advanced characterisation methods and systematic capture of knowledge by scalable mathematical and physical models, allowing prediction of performance in the context of bio-feedstocks; -Developing industrially relevant, insightful Downscaling methodologies to allow evaluation of the impact of diverse and variable bio-feedstocks on catalyst performance; -Addressing major challenges impacting on the efficiency and implementation of 4 key catalytic steps in biobased processes: Hydrotreating (HT) and co-Fluid Catalytic Cracking forming the pyrolysis liquid value chain for near term implementation in existing refining units as a timely achievement of the 20-20-20 objectives: addressing challenges of selectivity and stability in HT; increased bio-oil content in co-FCC. Hydrocarbon (HC) reforming and CO2 tolerant Fischer Tropsch (FT) forming the gasification value chain for longer term implementation in new European relevant infrastructure, representing 100% green sustainable route for Energy Roadmap 2050: addressing challenges of stability and resistance in HC reforming; stability and selectivity for FT. Advances in rational design of nano-catalysts will establish a fundamental platform that can be applied to other energy applications. The project will thus speed-up industrialisation of safer, greener, atom efficient, and stable catalysts, while improving the process efficiency.
Grace GmbH and Co. KG | Date: 2011-05-19
Porous inorganic oxide particles, such as porous silica particles, and compositions containing porous inorganic oxide particles are disclosed. Methods of making porous inorganic oxide particles and methods of using porous inorganic oxide particles are also disclosed.
Wallenstein D.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG |
Schafer K.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG |
Harding R.H.,WR Grace
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2015
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the most flexible process in the refining industry to convert residues from the atmospheric distillation of crude oils into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline and light cycle-oil (LCO). In order to meet the varying demands for these fractions via changes in the catalytic properties of FCC catalysts, the effects of varying rare earth content and matrix modification are primarily utilized. Rare earth content variation changes the behaviour of the zeolitic part in FCC catalysts with regard to its response to the hydrothermal deactivation and contaminant metals during FCCU operation; the rare earth content primarily determines the rate of dealumination and structural collapse of the zeolite and thus the resulting equilibrium unit cell size. This parameter strongly correlates with the rates of hydrogen-transfer reactions, which in turn, have an impact on catalyst deactivation by coke formation. The degree of dealumination, structural collapse and coke-on-catalyst level affect the diffusion of the feed molecules into the zeolite and the residence time of the products in the zeolite. For the work presented here, FCC catalysts of different rare earth content were hydrothermally equilibrated in the absence and presence of contaminant metals. The interplay of the resulting structural properties with the catalytic performance was investigated by cracking a heavy vacuum gas-oil and a resid feed on these FCC catalysts at short catalyst time-on-stream and high temperature. With increasing rare earth content, the LCO selectivity decreased whereas gasoline and LPG selectivities run through maxima and minima respectively. The evaluation of the individual compounds in the gasoline fraction suggests that these observations could be attributed to mass transport limitations imposed by the structural changes of the zeolite as a function of rare earth content. However, the selectivity trade-offs which accompany the beneficial effects of increasing the rare earth levels on zeolite, as for example lower LCO selectivity, can be compensated by matrix modification. Thus all the advantages of high unit cell size catalysts such as high stability, high activity, low coke selectivity, low dry gas, high gasoline make of low olefinicity and gasoline sulfur reduction can be utilized. To put the findings into commercial perspective: amongst the criteria which impose constraints on FCCU operation are catalyst circulation, heat balance and from a legislative point of view the gasoline olefinicity. Therefore, comparisons of yields at constant catalyst-to-oil ratio, constant coke and constant product olefinicity are often more relevant to estimate commercial performance than the comparison of yields at constant conversion. Such an evaluation at constant catalyst-to-oil ratio shows substantial benefits in catalyst activity, bottoms cracking and gasoline yields at high rare-earth-on-FCC catalyst content whilst the desired reduction in gasoline olefinicity was achieved as well. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wallenstein D.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG |
Farmer D.,WR Grace |
Knoell J.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG |
Fougret C.M.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG |
Brandt S.,Grace GmbH and Co. KG
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2013
The artificial deposition of contaminant metals on FCC catalysts by pore volume impregnation methods (Mitchell) followed by hydrothermal deactivation in small scale units are the most common techniques for the deactivation of FCC catalysts in the laboratory due to the simplicity and robustness of such methods. However, such methods do not match the deposition of the metals on the outer surface of the FCC catalyst particles as observed for equilibrium catalysts (FCC catalysts equilibrated in FCC units). A new method of catalyst metallation has been developed using a spray impregnation technique, where the contaminant metals vanadium and nickel are deposited on the outer surface area of the FCC catalyst particles. Using this novel technique nickel remains primarily on the surface of the particles under severe hydrothermal conditions whilst vanadium migrates into the bulk of the particles and from particle to particle as observed in equilibrium catalysts. This dispersion of the contaminant metals occurs simultaneously with zeolite degradation and thus leads to different effects on the physical and catalytic properties of FCC catalysts compared to a Mitchell-type method where the contaminant metals already penetrate the FCC catalyst particles during the impregnation step. Such differences in physical and catalytic properties are shown by numerous examples. It is also demonstrated that the hydrothermal deactivation of catalysts metallated by the spray impregnation method results in catalyst properties being closer to those of equilibrium catalysts than the deactivation after metallation by the Mitchell method. Hence the catalytic testing of spray impregnated and deactivated samples provides more realistic results than the testing of Mitchell impregnated catalysts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.