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Winona Lake, IN, United States

Grace College & Seminary is an evangelical Christian community of higher education which applies biblical values in strengthening character, sharpening competence, and preparing for service. The institution of higher education is located in Winona Lake, Indiana Wikipedia.


Mathew B.,Grace College | Suresh J.,Madras Medical College | Vinod D.,Madras Medical College
Medicinal Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

A new series of novel benzimidazole derivatives containing barbitone moiety (5a-f) was synthesized by a Knoevenagel condensation of (2E)-1-(1H- benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones (4a-f) and barbituric acid in the presence of catalytic amount of acetic acid medium. All the final structures were assigned on the basis of IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra analysis. Acute toxicity studies were performed initially to determine the safety of titled derivatives and the ED 50 value was calculated 50 mg/kg. All the final derivatives were screened for antitumour activity against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in mice. All the new candidates at a dose of 50 mg/kg showed a good antitumour activity against DLA-bearing mice when compared to the standard 5-fluro uracil. Among the final derivatives (5e), 5-[(2E)-1-(1H-benzimidazol-2- yl)-3-(3-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-ylidene] pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione was found to be most potent antitumour in nature. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Mathew B.,Grace College | Suresh J.,Madras Medical College
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The synthesis of some novel (1-H) benzimidazole bearing pyrimidine-trione based MAO-A inhibitors were achieved by the reaction between 2E)-1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ones(4a-f) and barbituric acid in the presence of a catalytic amount of acetic acid medium. All the final structures were assigned on the basis of IR, 1HNMR and mass spectra analyses. All the synthesized derivatives showed good antidepressant activity when compared to the standard clomipiramine at a dose level of 20 mg/kg. The compound (5d) 5-{(2E)-1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl] prop-2-en-1-ylidene} pyrimidine-2, 4, 6(1H,3H,5H)-trione significantly reduced the duration of immobility times at 50 mg/kg -1 dose level when compared to the standard drug. Molecular docking studies revealed the need for an extra hydrophobic interaction in the titled scaffold for acquiring the promising experimental values. It has been concluded that the computational values obtained after the docking calculation are in good agreement with the experimental values. © 2012. Source


Han H.,Korea Environment Institute | Bosch N.,Grace College | Allan J.D.,University of Michigan
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2011

We estimated net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) to 18 Lake Michigan (LM) and 6 Lake Erie (LE) watersheds for 1974, 1978, 1982, 1987, and 1992. NAPI quantifies all anthropogenic inputs of P (fertilizer use, atmospheric deposition, and detergents) as well as trade of P in food and feed, which can be a net input or output. Fertilizer was the dominant input overall, varying by three orders of magnitude among the 24 watersheds, but detergent was the largest input in the most urbanized watershed. NAPI increased in relation to area of disturbed land (R2 = 0.90) and decreased with forested and wetland area (R2 = 0.90). Export of P by rivers varied with NAPI, especially for the 18 watersheds of LM (R2 = 0.93), whereas the relationship was more variable among the six LE watersheds (R2 = 0.59). On average, rivers of the LE watersheds exported about 10% of NAPI, whereas LM watersheds exported 5% of estimated NAPI. A comparison of our results with others as well as nitrogen (N) budgets suggests that fractional export of P may vary regionally, as has been reported for N, and the proportion of P inputs exported by rivers appears lower than comparable findings with N. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Han H.,Korea Environmental Institute | Allan J.D.,University of Michigan | Bosch N.S.,Grace College
Journal of Great Lakes Research | Year: 2012

Phosphorus (P) applied to croplands in excess of crop requirements has resulted in large-scale accumulation of P in soils worldwide, leading to freshwater eutrophication from river runoff that may extend well into the future. However, several studies have reported declines in surplus P inputs to the land in recent decades. To quantify trends in P loading to Lake Erie (LE) watersheds, we estimated net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) to 18 LE watersheds for agricultural census years from 1935 to 2007. NAPI quantifies anthropogenic inputs of P from fertilizer use, atmospheric deposition and detergents, as well as the net exchange in P related to trade in food and feed. Over this 70-year period, NAPI increased to peak values in the 1970s and subsequently declined in 2007 to a level last experienced in 1935. This rise and fall was the result of two trends: a dramatic increase in fertilizer use, which peaked in the 1970s and then declined to about two-thirds of maximum values; and a steady increase in P exported as crops destined for animal feed and energy production. During 1974-2007, riverine phosphorus loads fluctuated, and were correlated with inter-annual variation in water discharge. However, riverine P export did not show consistent temporal trends, nor correlate with temporal trends in NAPI or fertilizer use. The fraction of P inputs exported by rivers appeared to increase sharply after the 1990s, but the cause is unknown. Thus estimates of phosphorus inputs to watersheds provide insight into changing source quantities but may be weak predictors of riverine export. © 2012 International Association for Great Lakes Research. Source


A series of isatin imines incorporated with 4-sustituted phenyl 2-amino thiazole was synthesized on the basis of molecular hybridization drug design principle. The structures of the derivatives were confirmed by IR, 1HNMR and Mass analyses. The titled derivatives were screened against M.tuberculosis strain H37RVusing alamar blue susceptibility test. Compound 3-{[4-(4- hydroxyphenyl)-1, 3-thiazol-2-yl] imino}-1, 3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (IIT2) was found to be most active with a MIC of 6.25μg/ml. Preclinical evaluation of the compounds was ascertained by in silico toxicity and ADME parameters. It has been concluded that the hydrogen contributing groups present in the phenyl system of the titled scaffold favours the activity ratio. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers Source

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