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Lethbridge, Canada

Smit M.N.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development | Zamora V.,Gowans Feed Consulting | Young M.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | Campbell N.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

This study attempted to empirically narrow down the net energy (NE) value of reduced-oil corn distillers’ dried grains and solubles (RO-cDDGS) by evaluating the response in pig growth performance, live backfat and loin depth, carcass traits, and primal pork cuts tissue composition to feeding diets formulated increasing the assumed NE value of RO-cDDGS, expecting a brisk change in slope of the response at the point at which the NE value of RO-cDDGS would be identified. In total, 1056 cross-bred pigs (31.7 kg) housed in 48 pens by gender were fed dietary regimens including 30% RO-cDDGS (6.7% ether extract) with assumed NE values of 1.7, 1.85, 2.0, 2.15, 2.3, or 2.45 Mcal kg–1 over five growth periods (Grower 1: days 0–21, Grower 2: days 22–42, Grower 3: days 43–63, Finisher 1: days 64–76, Finisher 2: day 77 to market weight). Pig body weights were measured and feed disappearance (ADFI) was calculated by pen on days 0, 21, 42, 63, 76 and weekly thereafter until target slaughter weight (120 kg). For the entire trial (days 0–76), increasing the assumed NE value of RO-cDDGS linearly increased (P<0.01) ADFI and total lysine intake, did not affect NE intake and daily weight gain (ADG), quadratically decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency, linearly decreased (P<0.05) live backfat depth and backfat:loin depth ratio, and did not affect carcass characteristics or pork primal cut tissue composition. Segmented regression only identified a change in slope for carcass ADG and lean ADG at 1.85 Mcal kg–1. These results indicate that the experimental approach taken was not reliable in narrowing down the NE value of RO-cDDGS because the decrease in dietary NE was too small (0.03 Mcal kg–1 d), which limited the change in dietary Lys:NE ratio with increasing assumed NE value of RO-cDDGS. The approach resulted in progressive, but small changes in slope rather than a clearly identifiable point where one could conclude that the incremental dietary energy contribution from RO-cDDGS changed the response in a given variable. Source


Seneviratne R.W.,University of Alberta | Young M.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | Beltranena E.,University of Alberta | Goonewardene L.A.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Expeller-pressed (EP) canola meal contains more residual oil than solvent-extracted canola meal and might be an attractive feedstuff for swine, but it has been poorly characterized. In Exp. 1, six ilealcannulated barrows (36 kg of BW) were fed at 3× maintenance either a 44% EP canola meal diet or a N-free diet in a crossover design to measure energy and AA digestibility and calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content, with 6 observations per diet. Each period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation and a 2-d feces and 3-d digesta collection. The EP canola meal contained (% of DM) 38.5% CP, 13.3% ether extract, 2.42% Lys, 1.54% Thr, 0.62% Met, and 23.2 μmol/g of glucosinolates. Apparent total tract energy digestibility was 75.0% and the DE and predicted NE content were 3.77 and 2.55 Mcal/kg (in DM), respectively. The SID AA content (% of DM) was 1.77% Lys, 1.04% Thr, and 0.52% Met. In Exp. 2, a total of 1,100 pigs (25 kg of BW) housed in 50 pens were fed 5 dietary regimens with 0, 7.5, 15, and 22.5% or decreasing amounts (22.5, 15, 7.5, and 0%, respectively) of EP canola meal over 4 phases to validate performance and carcass characteristics. Diets were formulated to contain equal NE:SID Lys for each growth phase (g/Mcal;4.04, d 0 to 25; 3.63, d 26 to 50; 3.23, d 51 to 77; 2.83, d 78 to 90). At slaughter, carcass characteristics were measured for all pigs, and jowl fat was sampled for 2 pigs per pen. For d 51 to 90, the 22.5% EP canola meal regimen was reduced to 18% (22.5/18%) because of decreased ADFI in phases 1 and 2. Overall (d 0 to 90), increasing dietary EP canola meal linearly decreased (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI and linearly increased (P < 0.01) G:F. For 0 and 22.5/18% EP canola meal, respectively, ADG was 978 and 931 g/d, ADFI was 2.77 and 2.58 kg/d, and G:F was 0.366 and 0.378. Increasing dietary EP canola meal did not alter the carcass backfat thickness, loin depth, or jowl fat fatty acid profile. Pigs fed 22.5/18% EP canola meal reached slaughter weight 3 d after (P < 0.05) pigs fed 0% EP canola meal. In summary, EP canola meal provided adequate energy and AA; however, ADG was reduced by 3 g/d per 1% of EP canola meal inclusion, likely because of increased dietary glucosinolates. Thus, the amount of EP canola meal included in swine diets should be targeted to an expected growth performance and carcass quality. Finally, diets formulated to contain an equal NE and SID AA content did not entirely eliminate the risks for reduced growth performance associated with inclusion of an alternative feedstuff. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science. Source


Nasir Z.,University of Alberta | Wang L.F.,University of Alberta | Young M.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | Swift M.L.,Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Wheat and barley are feed grains used as dietary sources of energy for swine in western Canada, Australia and northern Europe. Inclusion of high quality (HQ) barley grain in starter pig diets is limited due to its greater fibre content and lower net energy (NE) value than wheat. Low quality (LQ) barley due to adverse agronomic conditions is also available, but its feed value for young pigs is unknown. To explore, 280 starter pigs (initial body weight: 8.65 ± 0.87. kg) were fed pelleted diets including HQ or LQ barley (with or without balancing for NE value) to replace 650. g wheat/kg for 3 weeks starting 1 week post-weaning. Five diets were formulated as [MJ NE/kg; g standardised ileal digestible (SID) lysine/MJ NE]: 1) wheat (10.0, 1.07); 2) HQ barley (10.0, 1.06); 3) LQ barley without NE correction (9.76, 1.09); 4) LQ barley with NE correction (10.0, 1.06); and 5) LQ barley with low NE value (9.42, 1.12). The apparent total tract digestibility coefficient (CATTD) of gross energy (GE) was greater (P<. 0.05) for the wheat diet than for barley diets. The CATTD of GE was lower (P<. 0.05) for the HQ barley diet than for LQ barley diets and greater (P<. 0.05) for the LQ low NE barley diet than the LQ barley diet without NE correction. The digestible energy (DE) and predicted diet NE value were greater (P<. 0.05) for the wheat diet than barley diets except for the LQ barley diet with NE correction. These energy values were lower (P<. 0.05) for the HQ barley diet than for LQ barley diets and greater (P<. 0.05) for the LQ barley diet with NE correction than LQ barley diets without NE correction or low NE. For day 1-21, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F) of the wheat diet did not differ from that of the HQ barley diet but was lower (P<. 0.05) than those of LQ barley diets. The ADG of the HQ barley diet did not differ from LQ barley diets. The NE correction did not affect ADFI, ADG and G:F of LQ barley diets. In conclusion, despite lower nutrient digestibility and energy value, LQ or HQ barley can fully replace wheat grain in diets for starter pigs and achieve equivalent or better growth performance. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Jha R.,University of Alberta | Jha R.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Htoo J.K.,Evonik Industries | Young M.G.,Gowans Feed Consulting | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Dietary inclusion of co-products (Co-P) provides opportunities for diversifying the feedstuff matrix by using local feedstuffs, reducing feed costs, and producing value-added pork. In 2 studies, we determined effects of Co-P (canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, and co-extruded oil seed and field pea) inclusion level and reduced dietary CP concentration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and jowl fatty acid profiles of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs were fed isoenergetic and isolysinic diets over 4 growth phases with 8 pen observations per dietary regimen. At slaughter, carcasses were characterized for all pigs and jowl fat was collected from 2 pigs per pen. In Exp. 1, 1,056 pigs (initial BW, 35.3 ± 0.4 kg) were fed 3 levels of dietary Co-P (low, mid, and high) and 2 CP concentrations (low and normal). Overall (d 0 to 86), increasing Co-P inclusion from low to mid or high decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG of pigs. Low CP concentration increased (P < 0.05) ADFI and ADG compared with normal CP concentration. An interaction (P = 0.026) occurred between dietary Co-P inclusion and CP concentration for G:F; low CP reduced (P < 0.05) G:F compared with normal CP for pig fed low Co-P, but G:F did not differ between CP concentrations for pigs fed mid and high Co-P. Increasing dietary Co-P inclusion from low to high increased (P < 0.001) α-linolenic acid (ALA) in jowl fat but decreased (P < 0.001) carcass weight and loin depth. In Exp. 2, 1,008 pigs (initial BW, 30.3 ± 0.4 kg) were assigned to 5 dietary regimens with Co-P increasing from 2.0 to 50.0% or a sixth regimen with 10% extra supplemental AA for the 37.5% Co-P diet. Overall (d 0 to 97), increasing Co-P inclusion did not affect ADFI, ADG, and G:F. Increasing dietary Co-P inclusion linearly decreased (P < 0.01) carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and loin depth but linearly increased (P < 0.001) jowl ALA. Supplementing 10% extra AA to the 37.5% Co-P diet did not affect growth performance or dressing percentage but increased (P = 0.014) carcass leanness and decreased (P = 0.023) backfat thickness compared with the 37.5% Co-P diet, indicating that dietary AA supply did not limit BW gain. In conclusion, Co-P can be included by up to 50% in diets for growing-finishing pigs without affecting G:F. However, increasing dietary Co-P may reduce ADG, ADFI, and carcass weight even if diets are balanced for dietary NE and standardized ileal digestible AA content. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Prieto N.,University of Alberta | Prieto N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Uttaro B.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mapiye C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition and iodine value (IV) of backfat from carcasses of pigs fed reduced-oil corn dried distillers grains with solubles. NIRS was suitable for screening purposes for the proportions of total saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, n-3 and n-6 FAs and some individual FAs such as C16:0, C18:1, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 (R2=0.80-0.89; RMSECVs, root mean square errors of cross-validation=0.21-1.37% total FA) in both cold and warm intact backfat samples. This technology also met the requirements for a quick screening for the backfat IV in both cold and warm intact samples (R2=0.90 and 0.87; RMSECVs=1.66 and 1.80% total FA, respectively), which would help provide differential feed-back to pig producers and the feed industry and may provide the opportunity for breeding pigs for a desirable fat quality. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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