Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Pantnagar, India

Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology is the first agricultural university of India. It was inaugurated by Jawahar Lal Nehru on 17 November 1960 as the Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University . Later the name was changed to Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology in 1972 in memory of the first Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and statesman Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant. The University was declared as the best among all the other State Universities in India, in 1997. The University lies in the campus-town of Pantnagar in the district of Udham Singh Nagar in the state of Uttarakhand. The university is regarded as the harbinger of Green Revolution in India. Wikipedia.

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Joshi P.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Arora S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

Owing to the rapid developments in the semiconductor and power electronics techniques, Photovoltaic energy is one of the interest area of concern in electrical power applications. Similarly, photovoltaic energy is clean, easily accessible, pollution-free and inexhaustible. It is normally important to operate the photovoltaic energy conversion systems closer to the maximum power point, to perk-up the output efficiency of the photovoltaic arrays. This paper elaborates the illustration and operating principles of twenty-seven state-of-the-art Maximum Power Point Tracking techniques that are prevalent in the photovoltaic systems. The selection of the photovoltaic system is dependent on diverse factors like cost, efficiency, complexity, technology and array dependency. Therefore, to come out with the design of a resourceful system, various aspects of different Maximum Power Point Tracking techniques have to be considered. An expressive comparative chart has been entailed at the end of this paper, which in future. , will serve as a valuable reference to the photovoltaic system engineers. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Kala P.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Arora S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Over the last few decades, multilevel inverters (MLIs) are being extensively utilized in many industrial and grid connected applications due to their numerous merits. With the recent development of renewable energy systems (RES), applications of classical MLI topologies are hindered due to their performance issues such as poor power quality, uneconomical structure and low efficiency. These performance issues and limitations in classical MLI topologies have attracted the researchers toward evolving new hybrid MLI topologies. In this article, a comprehensive analysis of these recent hybrid MLI topologies is done on the basis of some qualitative and quantitative performance indices. Special focus has been given to extensively review the influence of MLIs in grid connected renewable energy applications such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and micro-grid. In order to provide the better insight about the working and performance of these MLI topologies, simulation results performed in MATLAB/Simulink environment are also presented. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Chanyal B.C.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Ukrainian Journal of Physics | Year: 2017

The Clifford-octonion algebra is the highest hypercomplex algebra over a real field with Clifford coefficient (ε). The paper aims to apply the Clifford-octonion algebra (or simply called dual-octonion algebra) to describe the consistence theory of generalized electromagnetism and its conservation laws for dyons. The present paper describes the property of Lorentz invariance symmetries of dyons and their corresponding conservation laws. Moreover, we have studied the conservation of mass-energy, liner momentum, and angular momentum for four-dimensional particle dyons with the Clifford-octonion algebra. In generalized Clifford-octonion electromagnetic fields, we express the work-energy theorem and the linear momentum conservation theorem corresponding to the scalar and vector components of dyons, respectively. Finally, we have constructed the dual octonion form of the angular momentum conservation law, which represents an analog of the virial theorem in mechanics. © B.C. CHANYAL, 2017.

Bardhan D.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Sharma M.L.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
SpringerPlus | Year: 2013

The study was undertaken in Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state of India with the objective of estimating technical efficiency in milk production across different herd-size category households and factors influencing it. Total of 60 farm households having representation from different herd-size categories drawn from six randomly selected villages of plain and hilly regions of the division constituted the ultimate sampling units of the study. Stochastic frontier production function analysis was used to estimate the technical efficiency in milk production. Multivariate regression equations were fitted taking technical efficiency index as the regressand to identify the factors significantly influencing technical efficiency in milk production. The study revealed that variation in output across farms in the study area was due to difference in their technical efficiency levels. However, it was interesting to note that smallholder producers were more technically efficient in milk production than their larger counterparts, especially in the plains. Apart from herd size, intensity of market participation had significant and positive impact on technical efficiency in the plains. This provides definite indication that increasing the level of commercialization of dairy farms would have beneficial impact on their production efficiency. © 2013 Bardhan and Sharma; licensee Springer.

Jately V.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Arora S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Energy | Year: 2017

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is the back bone of most photovoltaic (PV) systems. The MPPT technique helps in extracting the maximum power available from a PV panel under varying atmospheric and load conditions. As the environmental conditions fluctuate throughout the day, maximum power point tracker along with the power converter forces the PV panel to deliver maximum power to the load. Performance indices like speed of convergence, accuracy, steady state losses, implementation complexity, cost, etc. determine the overall suitability of a maximum power point tracking technique. Researchers have proposed different techniques to achieve fast and accurate tracking of the maximum power point (MPP). Among these techniques, hill-climbing based algorithms are widely used for commercial and industrial applications. In this paper, the authors have developed an efficient dual-tracking MPPT technique for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. A comparative performance analysis of several conventional MPPT techniques and this dual-tracking technique has been carried out in Matlab/Simulink environment. Validation of the proposed technique has been done by comparing its energy yield with that of a recent single-tracking technique reported in literature under a typical one-day irradiance profile. The same irradiance profile has been used to show the economic gain of the technique. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Panwar K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Murthy D.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

The paper aims to study the design and thermal characteristics of pebble bed thermal regenerators with small particles. With the help of mathematical modeling of regenerator, codes are written in MATLAB software to evaluate various parameters of design of the pebble bed regenerator. Regenerator length, switching time, thermal mean residence time and various other design parameters for maximum single-pass efficiency, maximum heat storage factor and maximum thermal efficiency are calculated. A comparison between the co-current and counter current flow within the regenerators is done in the paper. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rawat R.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Tewari L.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Extremophiles | Year: 2012

In the present investigation, a microorganism hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was isolated and identified as Bacillus subtilis strain LFS3 by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) enzyme produced by the B. subtilis strain LFS3 was purified by (NH 4) 2SO 4 precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, with an overall recovery of 15%. Native-PAGE analysis of purified CMCase revealed the molecular weight of enzyme to be about 185 kDa. The activity profile of CMCase enzyme showed the optimum activity at temperature 60 °C and pH 4.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was induced by Na +, Mg 2+, NH 4 +, and EDTA, whereas strongly inhibited by Hg 2+ and Fe 3+. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed CMC, filter paper, and xylan, but not p-nitrophenyl β-d-glucopyranoside and cellulose. Kinetic analysis of purified enzyme showed the K m value of 2.2 mg/ml. Thus, acidophilic as well as thermophilic nature makes this cellulase a suitable candidate for current mainstream biomass conversion into fuel and other industrial processes. © 2012 Springer.

Rana G.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Johri U.C.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Nanocrystalline NixFe1xFe 2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) ferrite samples with particle size 8-16 nm were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms their inverse spinel structure. The Ni 2+ ions occupy T-site also and the cation distribution of Ni xFe1xFe2O4 changes. The change in cation inversion is indicated by the Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results, which modifies the properties of NixFe 1xFe2O4 ferrite samples in a different way than that was expected without cation inversion. The Ni-substitution should decrease the lattice parameter and the magnetization but in the present case the lattice constant as well as magnetization value both is observed to increase. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Marla S.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Singh V.K.,Banaras Hindu University
Functional and Integrative Genomics | Year: 2012

Plant Lipoxygenases (LOX) are known to play major role in plant immunity by providing front-line defense against pathogen-induced injury. To verify this, we isolated a full-length OsLOX3 gene and also 12 OsLOX cDNA clones from Oryza sativa indica (cultivar Pusa Basmati 1). We have examined the role played by LOXs in plant development and during attack by blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. Gene expression, promoter region analysis, and biochemical and protein structure analysis of isolated OsLOX3 revealed significant homology with LOX super family. Protein sequence comparison of OsLOXs revealed high levels of homology when compared with japonica rice (up to100%) and Arabidopsis (up to 64%). Isolated LOX3 gene and 12 OsLOX cDNAs contained the catalytic LOX domains much required for oxygen binding and synthesis of oxylipins. Amino acid composition, protein secondary structure, and promoter region analysis (with abundance of motifs CGTCA and TGACG) support the role of OsLOX3 gene in providing resistance to diseases in rice plants. OsLOX3 gene expression analysis of root, shoot, flag leaf, and developing and mature seed revealed organ specific patterns during rice plant development and gave evidence to association between tissue location and physiological roles played by individual OsLOXs. Increased defense activity of oxylipins was observed as demonstrated by PCR amplification of OsLOX3 gene and upon inoculation with virulent strains of M. grisea and ectopic application of methyl jasmonate in the injured leaf tissue in adult rice plants. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Datta S.N.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Aquaculture | Year: 2011

Comparative study was conducted to examine growth rate, biomass production and proximate composition of six different Azolla species. Essential amino acids (EAA) of different Azolla species in linear growth phase also analysed. A feeding trial was conducted in the cemented tanks (8.0. m. ×. 1.25. m. ×. 1.0. m) to examine efficacy of dried Azolla mixture as a feed ingredient in the diet of Labeo rohita. Azolla mixture was incorporated in diet at 15%, 25% and 35% level. Highest weight gain was recorded with the diet containing 25% Azolla mixture with specific growth rate of 0.7468% / day. The experimental fish recorded the value of exponent 'b' in the range of 2.5155 to 2.7760. The condition factor 'K' of all experimental fish was above 1.0 (1.2237-1.2326) indicating good condition of experimented fish. Incorporation of Azolla in the fish diets reduced the fat content in muscle of fish. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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