Rajeev S.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology |
Sharma T.P.,National Institute of Technology Hamirpur
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology | Year: 2015
Authentication per frame is an implicit necessity for security in wireless local area networks (WLANs). we propose a novel per frame secure authentication scheme which provides authentication to data frames in WLANs. The scheme involves nocryptographic overheads for authentication of frames. It utilizes the sequence number of the frame along with the authentication stream generators for authentication. Hence, it requires no extra bits or messages for the authentication purpose and also no change in the existing frame format is required. The scheme provides authentication by modifying the sequence number of the frame at the sender, and that the modification is verified at the receiver. The modified sequence number is protected by using the XOR operation with a random number selected from the random stream. The authentication is lightweight due to the fact that it requires only trivial arithmetic operations like the subtraction and XOR operation.
Singh D.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology |
Kumar P.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014
A field experiment was conducted at farmers’ fields in the district of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, during 2009-10 and 2010-11, to find out the alternate efficient cropping systems for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] in western Himalayas. Five cropping systems including the existing rice-wheat system were tested at 12 farmers’ fields as researcher designed farmer managed trials. The wheat equivalent yield under the rice-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)-greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], rice-potato-vegetable cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and rice-vegetable pea (Pisum sativum L.)-vegetable Frenchbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was 135, 124 and 105% higher than the rice-wheat system. The rice-potato-greengram cropping system recorded highest net returns ((formula presented)1,61,928/ha), followed by rice-vegetable pea-vegetable Frenchbean ((formula presented)1,58,192/ha) and rice-potato-vegetable cowpea cropping systems ((formula presented)1,52,415/ha). The highest benefit: cost ratio (1.93) was recorded with the rice-vegetable pea-vegetable Frenchbean cropping system owing to its lower cost of cultivation and higher returns. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.