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Kumar I.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Bhadauria H.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Virmani J.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Thakur S.,Indira Gandhi Medical College
Multimedia Tools and Applications | Year: 2017

In the present work, a hybrid hierarchical framework for classification of breast density using digitized film screen mammograms has been proposed. For designing of an efficient classification framework 480 MLO view digitized screen film mammographic images are taken from DDSM dataset. The ROIs of fixed size i.e. 128 × 128 pixels are cropped from the center area of the breast (i.e. the area where glandular ducts are prominent). A total of 292 texture features based on statistical methods, signal processing based methods and transform domain based methods are computed for each ROI. The computed feature vector is subjected to PCA for dimensionality reduction. The reduced feature space is fed to the classification module. In this work 4-class breast density classification has been conducted using hierarchical framework where the first classifier is used to classify an unknown test ROI into B-I/other class. If the test ROI is predicted as other class, it is inputted to second classifier for the classification into B-II/dense class. If the test ROI is predicted as belonging to dense class, it is inputted to classifier for the classification into B-III/B-IV class. In this work five hierarchical classifiers designs consisting of 3 PCA-kNN, 3 PCA-PNN, 3 PCA-ANN, 3 PCA-NFC and 3 PCA-SVM classifiers has been proposed. The obtained maximum OCA value is 80.4% using PCA-NFC in hierarchical approach. Further, the best performing individual classifiers are clubbed together in a hierarchical framework to design hybrid hierarchical framework for classification of breast density using digitized screen film mammograms. The proposed hybrid hierarchical framework yields the OCA value of 84.1%. The result achieved by the proposed hybrid hierarchical framework is quite promising and can be used in clinical environment for differentiation between different breast density patterns. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Sharma V.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Bhadauria H.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Prasad D.,Chandigarh Engineering College
Wireless Personal Communications | Year: 2016

Sensor Node (SN) is a vital component in any automated system. It is an electro-chemical or electro-mechanical device designed to observe the specific changes occurring in its vicinity. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a system formed by the group of wirelessly connected SNs which are deployed at distinct geographical locations within a candidate region. Performance of any WSN in terms of connectivity, coverage and life mainly depends on the distribution of SNs. In this paper, we propose a Neighbor Assisted Deployment Scheme (NADS) to uniformly distribute the randomly spread Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs) within a candidate region. Entire candidate region is divided into Square Sub-Regions (SSRs) which are further divided into regular hexagons and center of these hexagons forms the Desired Locations (DLs) for placement of MSNs. NADS uses 3-phase incremental approach for optimal placement of MSNs. Resultant of each phase forms the infrastructure to assist the placement of remaining unplaced MSNs. In each phase MSNs communicate locally with each other to elect the most appropriate one among them to relocate to the nearest DL. Factors such as dropping height, wind speed, parachute size, battery size and MSN weight are considered to determine the area approachable by any dropped MSN. This limits the number of computations performed at each MSN, regardless of the size of the candidate region. The scheme is simulated and a comparative study is made with some existing systems. It is observed that NADS is realistic, scalable and yields better performance in terms of coverage, connectivity, setup-time and energy-efficiency with minimum number of MSNs as compared to existing schemes. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Baunthiyal M.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Sharma V.,Banasthali University
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

The plasma membrane associated H+-ATPase (P-type) and vacuolar membrane associated H+-ATPase (V-type) enzymes are known to be the site of functional alterations during fluoride (F) stress. The present study was conducted on three species of semi-arid region, viz., Acacia tortilis, Cassia fistula and Prosopis juliflora that are found to be hyperaccumulator for F. The enzyme activities were assayed in microsomal fractions (10,000 g supernatant fractions). A decrease in P-ATPase and V-ATPase activity was associated with F stress of varying degrees in all the species tested. Both enzymes showed highest activities in P. juliflora and lowest in C. fistula. In general P-ATPase activity of leaves was more inhibited by increase in F concentrations ranging from 10–50 mg kg−1 in the medium as compared with V-ATPase. The aim was to examine the relationship between F stress and adaptive responses as improved tolerance in the plants by investigating changes in the V-ATPase and P-ATPase activities of A. tortilis, C. fistula and P. juliflora. © 2014, Indian Society for Plant Physiology.


Baunthiyal M.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Sharma V.,Banasthali University
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2014

The study was done to investigate the ability of three semi-arid plant species viz. Acacia tortilis, Cassia fistula and Prosopis juliflora to adapt to fluoride (F) stress. Here we examined the changes in activities of chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentration during early growth of these plants. One month old plants were treated with 10, 20, and 50 mg kg-1 F in soilrite. We did not observe any major change in photosynthetic performance of these plants during early growth. This was revealed by ETR, ETRmax, PPFD-sat and ΔF/Fm′-sat values which were higher in these plants. The decrease in chl a, chl b and total chl concentrations were significant only at 5 days. For most of the parameters, C. fistula was found to be more sensitive to F stress and P. juliflora showed least damage from F. The lesser inhibition in the parameters reflected the F tolerant nature of these plants with respect to photosynthesis. This opens the possibility of potential use of these species for treatment of F contaminated soil and water. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Sharif M.,Jazan University | Swamy V.S.V.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology | Year: 2014

This paper describes the development and application of LINGO model to the optimal operation of a multi-reservoir system. The original four-reservoir problem (Larson, 1968) with linear objective function and a modified problem with nonlinear objective function have been solved using LINGO model. To evaluate the performance of LINGO model, both the problems have also been solved using discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP). Performance of LINGO and DDDP-based optimisation models was evaluated on the basis of the objective function values achieved, the execution time required and the optimal state trajectories produced. Optimal storage trajectories obtained from both the models have been presented. The LINGO model was found to be superior to DDDP model in terms of execution time, although optimal state trajectories produced by each model are identical. A distinct practical contribution of the present research is that a LINGO model free from dimensionality problems has been developed for the optimisation of multi reservoir systems operations. An added advantage of the LINGO model is that it is transportable with minimum changes to any reservoir system. Copyright © 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Chauhan S.,Near Nehru Training Center | Pant B.D.,Government Degree College | Bhatt S.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College
Gazi University Journal of Science | Year: 2013

Sintunavarat and Kumam [Common fixed point theorems for a pair of weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces, J. Appl. Math. vol. 2011, Article ID 637958, 14 pages, 2011] defined the notion of (CLRg) property which is more general than (E.A) property. The aim of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem for a pair of weakly compatible mappings in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces employing (CLRg) property. Our results improve and generalize several previously known fixed point theorems of the existing literature.


Agrawal S.K.,Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology | Joshi S.,Graphic Era University | Purohit B.M.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College
International Conference on Soft Computing Techniques and Implementations, ICSCTI 2015 | Year: 2015

This Nowadays system hear that CLOUD computing is ubiquitous. Most of tech giants have converted their owned in-house data centers to using CLOUD technology and outsourcing the part of their services to public cloud and to opt for hybrid cloud architecture. There is no doubt that CLOUDs have the potential for being the next generation model computational services, but with that potential comes the risk of theft and concerns related to security and privacy. A lot of development and progress has already been made in CLOUD technologies, there still remains a wide range of concerns this article system identify and classify the main security concerns and solutions in cloud computing, and propose a method of security in cloud environment. In this paper Row Column Diagonal (RCD) based engine has been proposed. Along with the cloud sub-cloud. Data Security using RCD engine in Cloud Environment is also explained. Further, RCD engine system has been proposed in "Central Cloud" and "RCD Supervisor" modes in Cloud environment along with the situation of uploading and downloading. Validation and analysis have been performed for RCD Engine and indicates RCD based engine is much powerful and secure. As RCD Algorithm is much more robust and easy to implement with considering all the aspects of main and sub cloud using RCD supervisor as the central body. © 2015 IEEE.


Baunthiyal M.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Ranghar S.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2015

Fluoride pollution is now recognized as a global problem. The reason fluorides are considered as serious contaminants even when they are present at low levels is that they persist for a long time in air, soil, and water and exert negative effects at all levels of an ecosystem. Thus, immediate attention is the need of the hour to remediate the environment from F pollution. Till date, the conventional methods have been developed primarily to remove F from water. These methods are very slow and expensive. Besides, not much research has been done so far to remediate F from soil. This review focuses on the uptake and accumulation of F by certain aquatic and land plant species. Exploring these plants by analysis of their tissues for accumulated contaminants may open up several opportunities to be utilized to remediate F rich water and soil. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Adhikari M.S.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Singh Y.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College
2016 International Conference on Computational Techniques in Information and Communication Technologies, ICCTICT 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

In this paper, we have modified the conventional lateral double diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) using InGaAs known as Device1 by using trench technology with dual-gate and dual-drain structure known as Device2 and compared its performance parameters. The oxide (Al2O3) trenches are placed in the epitaxial layer at the adjacent side of the drain in which the gates are placed. The drain is placed at the top of the structure and the sources are at the outer edges of the structure so creating the dual-channels in the Device2. The two channel acts in parallel so emphasize the value of output current, transconductance, threshold voltage required for the integrated circuit (IC) of the proposed structure (Device2). The improvements in breakdown voltage (BV) is due to the enhancement of reduced-surface-field (RESURF) effect with the help of dual trenches of oxide (Al2O3) of the Device2 which are placed in the drift region on both sides of drain electrode. By using two dimensional numerical simulations, it is explained that the proposed structure LDMOSFET gives 1.79 times increase in drain current, 25% decrease the threshold-voltage, 66% increase in transconductance, and 2.3 times enhancement in breakdown voltage in comparison to the conventional LDMOS (Device1). © 2016 IEEE.


Baunthiyal M.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College | Pandey A.,Govind Ballabh Pant Engineering College
Fluoride | Year: 2012

This review summarizes the principal studies on biochemical and genetic aspects of the metabolism of organofluorine compounds (organoFs) in plants. Only a few plants are known to biosynthesize the C-F bond and thus form this rare class of fluorinated natural products. Most studies have been done on Streptomyces cattleya, which possesses the ability to synthesize organoFs such as fluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine from inorganic fluorides. The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of these organoFs in S. cattleya and the enzymes involved in their synthesis have been identified and characterized. A gene cluster in S. cattleya encodes enzymes involved in the formation of organoFs. © 2012 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc.

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