Palappallil D.S.,Government TD Medical College |
Ramnath S.N.,Government TD Medical College |
Gangadhar R.,Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Science
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2017
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have become a major clinical problem causing additional burden on the total cost of a patient’s treatment. Aims and Objectives: To determine the characteristics of ADRs reported in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Descriptive analysis of ADRs reported to the Department of Pharmacology over a period of 2 years from July 2012 to June 2014 was done. ADR reports were analyzed on the basis of patient characteristics, drug characteristics, predictability, preventability, severity, causality, and seriousness of the ADR. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the risk factors for severe ADRs using SPSS 16. Results: From the 359 ADR reports, 377 ADRs were identified with mean age 43 ± 19 years. 95.3% affected single organ system, the most common being skin and appendages. The most common ADR reported was maculopapular rash. Antibiotics accounted for the maximum ADRs of which beta-lactams were the most common. 30.1% (108) ADRs occurred within 1 h of administration of the drug. In 12.73% (48) drug interactions (DIs) were cause of ADRs. Risk analysis showed that DIs (OR = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-1.53), concomitant use of more than one drug (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.97-3.18) and delayed onset ADRs (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.22-3.51) were risk factors for development of severe ADRs. Conclusions: Skin and integumentary system was the most commonly affected system and beta-lactams were the most common drug class implicated to cause ADR. © 2016 Dhanya Sasidharan Palappallil et al.
PubMed | Child Development Center, Government TD Medical College and Kerala University of Health Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pediatrics | Year: 2016
This article is our life time experience in conceptualizing and systematically developing Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala in the last 25 years, from a research project to a national training centre in child and adolescent development and premarital counseling. CDC Keralas major contribution was in creating a conceptual framework of a valid link between childhood disability, low birth weight, adolescent girls nutrition and fetal onset adult lifestyle diseases. It all started with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) proving beyond doubt that early stimulation is effective in improving the neurodevelopmental status of high risk babies at one and two years and the same cohort was followed-up in detail at 5, 13, 16, 19 and 24 completed years. The process of establishing CDC Kerala is being presented under (i) clinical child development, (ii) adolescent care counseling, (iii) young adults and premarital counseling and (iv) institution building.
Sathyamurthy I.,Apollo Main Hospitals |
Alex S.,Apollo Main Hospitals |
Alex S.,Government TD Medical College
Indian Heart Journal | Year: 2015
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. As life expectancy increases, prevalence of CAVD is expected to rise. CAVD is characterized by progressive dystrophic calcification of aortic cusps. In the initial stages, the pathogenesis is similar to atherosclerosis, characterized by basement membrane disruption, inflammation, cell infiltration, lipid deposition, and calcification. Presence of osteopontin in calcified aortic valves suggests pathological calcification and bone formation in these calcified valves. Historical, experimental, genetic, and clinical evidences suggest that CAVD and atherosclerosis share the same pathological sequences with common risk factors. Understanding the two faces of atherosclerosis, the vascular and valvular, will help us to prevent progression of aortic sclerosis to aortic stenosis, by controlling modifiable risk factors and by initiating statin therapy in them. However, the knowledge about these preventive measures and drugs is scanty. In this review article, an attempt is made to unfurl the relation between atherosclerosis and CAVD. © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Government Td Medical College and Government Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2017
Adolescent age group is the window of opportunity to correct nutritional status of children. If we intervene correctly during this period we can prevent future consequences of nutritional deficiencies. Very few studies have been conducted in kerala regarding adolescent anaemia.To estimate prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among adolescent girls of central Kerala, India.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 adolescent girls of ettumanoor panchayat, the field practice area of Government Medical College, Kottayam. A pre-designed and pre-tested proforma was used to obtain data regarding socio-demographic details and factors associated with anaemia. Relevant clinical examination of participants were done. Blood samples were analysed using an auto-analyser and stool examination for ova or cyst was done under microscopy. Diagnosis of anaemia was established when haemoglobin was less than 12gm/dl. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Association between Categorical variables were tested with Chi-square test and continuous variables independent t-test was used. Logistic regression was used to find out independent risk factors. The level of significance was fixed at p-value of < 0.05.The prevalence of anaemia was 21%. Risk factors associated with anaemia in the univariate analysis were presence of ova or cyst in stool (p = 0.003, OR = 2.94) and number of pads per day during menstruation (p = 0.004). Protective factors were hand washing after toileting (p = 0.021, OR = 0.311), hand washing before food intake (p = 0.026, OR = 0.5), foot wear usage (p = 0.022, OR = 0.25) and jaggery consumption (0.042). The factors which were significant in logistic regression were worm infestation, number of pads per day, washing hands before food intake and foot wear usage.Worm infestation and number of pads per day during menstruation were found to be risk factors for anaemia. Personal hygiene practices like hand washing and foot wear usage were found to be protective factors.
PubMed | Government Td Medical College, Government Medical College and Sree Gokulam Medical College and Research Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA | Year: 2016
The objective of this study was to measure the angle (Interneural angle, INA) between intracranial segments of optic nerves (ISON), and to look for any relation between it and the relative anteroposterior location (RAPL) of the optic chiasm (OC)-viz. prefixed, normofixed and postfixed.The sample comprised of 100 autopsy specimens from South Indian population. INA was measured using software-aided processing of digital photographs. Length of the ISON was measured on each side using Vernier calipers. RAPL of the OC was noted during dissection. These were analysed with statistical methods.RAPL of OC was found to be prefixed in 24%, normofixed in 65% and postfixed in 11%. The INA had an overall mean of 69.9 (SD 9.29). ANOVA confirmed statistically significant difference in INA among different groups; the corresponding mean value for the group was as follows: 79.61 (prefixed), 68.10 (normofixed) and 59.48 (postfixed). ROC curve was plotted for the use of various cut off values of INA to diagnose prefixed OC; an INA71.4 was seen to diagnostically correlate with prefixed OC with 83.3% sensitivity and 75% specificity.The INA is wider when OC is prefixed, intermediate when normofixed and narrowed when postfixed. This observation throws light on the possibility of using INA as a marker of RAPL of OC. As INA can be measured in axial MRI sections, it can be used in differentiation of the cases with prefixed OC from others during pre-operative work up for pituitary surgeries and to identify individuals at risk during subfrontal approach for pituitary lesions.
PubMed | Government Td Medical College and Government Medical College
Type: | Journal: World neurosurgery | Year: 2016
To identify the current management modalities practiced by neurosurgeons in India for chronic subdural hematoma.A questionnaire was prepared for the survey and sent via e-mail to neurosurgeons. It covered the following aspects of managing chronic subdural hematoma: 1) demographic and institutional details; 2) choice of surgical procedure; 3) surgical adjutants such as placing a subdural drain; 4) pre- and postoperative care; and 5) recurrences and management. Responses obtained were entered in a SPSS data sheet and analyzed.Response rate of the survey was 9.3%. The majority of neurosurgeons (75%) preferred to do burr whole drainage for primary chronic subdural hematoma and also for recurrences. Only one third of routinely placed a subdural drain. Considerable practice variations exist for medical and perioperative management.Bedside twist drill drainage, which is effective and less costly than operative room procedures, has not gained popularity in practice. The present survey points towards the importance of making management guidelines for this common neurosurgical entity.
Palappallil D.S.,Government TD Medical College |
Gangadhar R.,Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical science
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016
Introduction: The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results: Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion: The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights Reserved.
Palappallil D.S.,Government TD Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015
Introduction: There are several conflicting recommendations on the use of antibiotics in snakebite victims. This study aimed to identify the pattern of antibiotics used following snake envenomation in a tertiary care hospital of Kerala. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of case records from January to August 2011 was done and all the cases filed as snakebite were reviewed and details entered in a structured performa. Data was analysed using SPSS 16 and results were expressed mainly using descriptive statistics. Results: Three hundred and thirteen cases were evaluated with mean age 37.58± 14.54 year and 51.1% were males. Out of total, 94.6% received antibiotics of which 88.85% were oral, 8.1% parenteral and 3.04% both. There were total 454 prescriptions of antibiotics. In all seven different types of antibiotics were prescribed alone or in combination of which Ampicillin (205) was the commonest followed by Cloxacillin (194). The mean antibiotic usage was 1.46±0.716 per patient and the mean duration of antibiotic use was 3.16±1.446 days. In patients with no envenomation the mainly prescribed antibiotic was Cloxacillin (126). Intravenous antibiotics like Piperacillin plus Tazobactam were given only in patients with either local or systemic envenomation. Conclusion: The main pattern of use of antibiotics following snakebite envenomation is Ampicillin alone or in combination empirically, Cloxacillin prophylatically and Piperacillin with Tazobactam for severe established infections. The choice of antibiotics is based on the clinician’s discretion. Since the study setting is in a developing country the prophylactic use of antibiotics may be justified weighing the concerns of secondary infections. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All Rights Reserved.
PubMed | Government TD Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of applied & basic medical research | Year: 2016
Student-led seminars (SLS) are adopted as a teaching-learning (T-L) method in pharmacology. Previous studies assessing the feedback on T-L methods in pharmacology points out that the traditional seminars consistently received poor feedbacks as they were not favorite among the students.This study aimed to obtain feedback on traditional SLS, introduce modified SLS and compare the modified seminars with the traditional ones.This was a prospective interventional study done for 2 months in medical undergraduates of fifth semester attending Pharmacology seminars at a Government Medical College in South India.Structured questionnaire was used to elicit feedback from participants. The responses were coded on 5-point Likert scale. Modifications in seminar sessions such as role plays, quiz, tests, group discussion, and patient-oriented problem-solving exercises were introduced along with SLS.The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. The descriptive data were expressed using frequencies and percentages. Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Friedman tests were used to compare traditional with modified seminars.The participants identified interaction as the most important component of a seminar. Majority opined that the teacher should summarize at the end of SLS. Student feedback shows that modified seminars created more interest, enthusiasm, and inspiration to learn the topic when compared to traditional SLS. They also increased peer coordination and group dynamics. Students opined that communication skills and teacher-student interactions were not improved with modified seminars.Interventions in the form of modified SLS may be adopted to break the monotony of traditional seminars through active participation, peer interaction, and teamwork.
PubMed | Government TD Medical College and Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016
The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision.This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores.Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score.The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject.