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PubMed | Allahabad University, Banaras Hindu University, Western Kentucky University, Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College and Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Type: | Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB | Year: 2016

The unprecedented capability to control and characterize materials on the nanometer scale has led to the rapid expansion of nanostructured materials. The expansion of nanotechnology, resulting into myriads of consumer and industrial products, causes a concern among the scientific community regarding risk associated with the release of nanomaterials in the environment. Bioavailability of excess nanomaterials ultimately threatens ecosystem and human health. Over the past few years, the field of nanotoxicology dealing with adverse effects and the probable risk associated with particulate structures <100nm in size has emerged from the recognized understanding of toxic effects of fibrous and non-fibrous particles and their interactions with plants. The present review summarizes uptake, translocation and accumulation of nanomaterials and their recognized ways of phytotoxicity on morpho-anatomical, physiological, biochemical and molecular traits of plants. Besides this, the present review also examines the intrinsic detoxification mechanisms in plants in light of nanomaterial accumulation within plant cells or parts.


PubMed | Allahabad University, Banaras Hindu University, Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College and Government Pt Rst Degree College
Type: | Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB | Year: 2016

Understanding the adverse impact of nanoparticles in crop plants has emerged as one of the most interesting fields of plant research. Therefore, this study has been conducted to investigate the impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) on Pisium sativum seedlings. Besides this, we have also tested whether nitric oxide (NO) is capable of reducing toxicity of AgNps or not. NO has been found as one of the most fascinating molecules, capable of enhancing plant tolerance to different environmental stresses. The results of the present study showed that AgNps treatments (1000M and 3000M) significantly declined growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea seedlings, which could be correlated with increased accumulation of Ag in root and shoot of pea seedlings. In contrast, addition of SNP (100M; a donor of NO) successfully ameliorated AgNp-induced adverse effects on these parameters as it reduced accumulation of Ag and repaired damaged tissues. Levels of oxidative stress markers (SOR, H


Singh R.,Allahabad University | Singh S.,University of Lucknow | Parihar P.,Allahabad University | Singh V.P.,Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College | Prasad S.M.,Allahabad University
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2015

The exposure to low or high concentrations of arsenic (As), either due to the direct consumption of As contaminated drinking water, or indirectly through daily intake of As contaminated food may be fatal to the human health. Arsenic contamination in drinking water threatens more than 150 millions peoples all over the world. Around 110 millions of those peoples live in 10 countries in South and South-East Asia: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan and Vietnam. Therefore, treatment of As contaminated water and soil could be the only effective option to minimize the health hazard. Therefore, keeping in view the above facts, an attempt has been made in this paper to review As contamination, its effect on human health and various conventional and advance technologies which are being used for the removal of As from soil and water. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Parihar P.,Allahabad University | Singh S.,University of Lucknow | Singh R.,Allahabad University | Singh V.P.,Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College | Prasad S.M.,Allahabad University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

The environmental stress is a major area of scientific concern because it constraints plant as well as crop productivity. This situation has been further worsened by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, there is a much scientific saddle on researchers to enhance crop productivity under environmental stress in order to cope with the increasing food demands. The abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold, and heat negatively influence the survival, biomass production and yield of staple food crops. According to an estimate of FAO, over 6 % of the world’s land is affected by salinity. Thus, salinity stress appears to be a major constraint to plant and crop productivity. Here, we review our understanding of salinity impact on various aspects of plant metabolism and its tolerance strategies in plants. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Singh V.P.,Allahabad University | Singh V.P.,Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College | Srivastava P.K.,Allahabad University | Srivastava P.K.,Pt Ravi Shankar Tripathi Government Degree College | Prasad S.M.,Allahabad University
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether exogenous addition of nitric oxide (NO) as sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates arsenic (As) toxicity in Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. seedlings. Arsenic (5 and 50μM) declined growth of Luffa seedlings which was accompanied by significant accumulation of As. SNP (100μM) protected Luffa seedlings against As toxicity as it declined As accumulation significantly. The photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Fm/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ was raised by As. However, the toxic effects of As on photosynthesis were significantly ameliorated by SNP. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As, however, these oxidative indices were diminished significantly in the presence of SNP. As treatment stimulated the activities of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST, and AsA content and AsA/DHA ratio were decreased. Upon SNP addition, along with further rise in SOD and CAT activity, APX and GST activity, and levels of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio were restored considerably. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, APX and GST activities and decreased AsA content, hence led to the oxidative stress. However, the addition of SNP protected seedlings against As stress by regulating As accumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Singh M.,Allahabad University | Singh V.P.,Allahabad University | Singh V.P.,Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College | Prasad S.M.,Allahabad University
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

In the present study, effect of different levels of nitrogen (N0, deprived; N25, sub-optimum; N75, optimum and N150, supra-optimum) in Solanum lycopersicum L. seedlings under NaCl (NaCl1, 0.3 g kg−1 sand and NaCl2, 0.5 g kg−1sand) stress was investigated. Biomass accumulation, pigments, K+ concentration, nitrate and nitrite contents were declined by NaCl in dose dependent manner. As compared to control (N75 without NaCl), fresh weight declined by 4% and 11%, and dry weight by 7 and 13% when seedlings were grown under N75+NaCl1 and N75+NaCl2 combinations, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescence parameters (JIP-test): the size and number of active reaction centres of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/F0), efficiency of water splitting complex (F0/Fv), quantum yield of primary photochemistry (φP0 or Phi_P0), yield of electron transport per trapped excitation (Ψ0 or Psi_0), the quantum yield of electron transport (φE0), and performance index of PS II (PIABS) and parameters related to energy fluxes per reaction centre (ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC) were also affected by NaCl. However, toxic effect of NaCl on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by N. The lower dose (NaCl1) of NaCl exerts damaging effect on oxidation side of PS II, while higher dose (NaCl2) damages PS II reaction centre and its reduction side. Moreover, control seedlings (N75 without NaCl) when exposed to NaCl1 and NaCl2 exhibited a significant enhancement in respiration rate by 6 and 16%, Na+ accumulation by 111 and 169% in shoot, and 141 and 223% in root and ammonium contents by 19 and 34% respectively. Nitrate and ammonium assimilating enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) were adversely affected by NaCl stress while glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) showed reverse trend. N addition caused further enhancement in free proline, and activity of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), while activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) decreased. The results indicate that different levels of N significantly modulated NaCl-induced damaging effects in tomato seedlings. Furthermore, the results suggest that after N addition Na+, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium contents, nitrogen metabolic enzymes, proline content, and activity of P5CS are favourably regulated, which might be associated with mitigation of NaCl stress and effect was more pronounced with supra-optimum level of N (N150). © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS


Yadav G.,Allahabad University | Srivastava P.K.,Allahabad University | Srivastava P.K.,Pt Ravi Shankar Tripathi Government Degree College | Singh V.P.,Allahabad University | And 2 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2014

The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities - optimum (400 μmole photon m -2 s-1), sub-optimum (225 μmole photon m-2 s-1), and low (75 μmole photon m-2 s-1) - exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg-1 soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg-1 soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro). © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


PubMed | Allahabad University, Banaras Hindu University and Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College
Type: | Journal: Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB | Year: 2016

The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H


PubMed | Allahabad University and Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College
Type: | Journal: Redox biology | Year: 2016

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of aerobic metabolism were initially studied in context to their damaging effect but recent decades witnessed significant advancements in understanding the role of ROS as signaling molecules. Contrary to earlier views, it is becoming evident that ROS production is not necessarily a symptom of cellular dysfunction but it might represent a necessary signal in adjusting the cellular machinery according to the altered conditions. Stomatal movement is controlled by multifaceted signaling network in response to endogenous and environmental signals. Furthermore, the stomatal aperture is regulated by a coordinated action of signaling proteins, ROS-generating enzymes, and downstream executors like transporters, ion pumps, plasma membrane channels, which control the turgor pressure of the guard cell. The earliest hallmarks of stomatal closure are ROS accumulation in the apoplast and chloroplasts and thereafter, there is a successive increase in cytoplasmic Ca


PubMed | Allahabad University, Banaras Hindu University and Government Ramanuj Pratap Singhdev Post Graduate College
Type: | Journal: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology | Year: 2016

The responses of wheat seedling treated with silicon (Si; 10 M) and lead (Pb; 100 M) for 7 days have been investigated by analyzing growth, Pb uptake, chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress, antioxidants and nutrients regulation. Results indicated that, Pb significantly (P<0.05) declined growth of seedlings which was accompanied by uptake of Pb. Under Pb stress, fluorescence parameters: Fv/Fm ratio and qP were significantly (P<0.05) decreased while NPQ was increased. Si addition alleviated Pb-induced decrease in growth and alterations in photosynthesis, and also significantly (P<0.05) lowered Pb uptake. Under Pb treatment, oxidative stress markers: hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were enhanced while DPPH() scavenging capacity and total phenolic compounds (TPCs) were decreased significantly, however, Si addition improved the status of antioxidants. The non-protein thiols (NP-SH) showed enhanced level under Pb stress. Pb stress considerably disturbed status of the nutrients as decrease in Ca, P, Mg, Zn and Ni contents while an increase in K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Na contents were noticed. Si addition maintained status of all the nutrients remarkably. The quickest method of element analysis: LIBS spectra revealed significantly lower uptake of Pb in seedlings grown under Si and Pb combination and same was correlated with the data of AAS. Overall results pointed out that excess Pb uptake disturbed status of nutrients, photosynthetic performance, antioxidant capacity, hence severe oxidative damage to lipids occurred. Further, Si supplementation successfully regulated these parameters by inhibiting Pb uptake hence maintained growth of wheat seedlings. Similar pattern of data recorded by the LIBS, AAS and ICAP-AES confirmed that LIBS may be one of the promising and authentic tools to monitor the mineral and metal distribution in the plants without hampering or disturbing the environment due to its eco-friendly and non-invasive nature.

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