Kessomboon N.,Khon Kaen University |
Limpananont J.,Chulalongkorn University |
Kulsomboon V.,Chulalongkorn University |
Maleewong U.,Chulalongkorn University |
And 2 more authors.
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2010
This study assessed the impact of the Thai-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA) on access to medicines in Thailand. We first interpreted the text of the sixth round of Thai-US negotiations in 2006 on intellectual property rights (IPR). The impact was estimated using a macroeconomic model of the impact of changes in IPR. The estimated impact is based on a comparison between the current IPR situation and the proposed changes to IPR. The FTA text involves the period of patent extension from the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS Agreement). The provisions involve the period of patent extension, which have to do with compensation for delays in patent registration and/or drug registration, data exclusivity that would result in a delay in generic drug entry, and the enforcing role of the Thai Food and Drug Administration of patent linkages. As a worst case scenario for this single provision, a 10 year patent extension would be given to compensate for delays in patent registration and/or drug registration. The impact on access to medicine, in the year 2027, would be: 1) A 32% increase in the medicine price index, 2) spending on medicines would increase to approximately USD 11,191 million, (USD1= THB 33.9 on September 2, 2009), and 3) the domestic industry could loss USD 3.3 million. These results suggest there would be a severe restriction on the access to medicines under the TRIPS-Plus proposal. IPR protection of pharmaceuticals per the TRIPS-Plus proposal should be excluded from FTA negotiations.
PubMed | The Government Pharmaceutical Organization
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2012
A UV-spectrophotometric method for the analysis of makeup remover was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. Three makeup removers for which the main ingredients consisted of vegetable oil (A), mineral oil and silicone (B) and mineral oil and water (C) were sampled in this study. Ethanol was the optimal solvent because it did not interfere with the maximum absorbance of the liquid foundation at 250 nm. The linearity was determined over a range of makeup concentrations from 0.540 to 1.412mgmL (R = 0.9977). The accuracy of this method was determined by analysing low, intermediate and high concentrations of the liquid foundation and gave 78.59-91.57% recoveries with a relative standard deviation of <2% (0.56-1.45%). This result demonstrates the validity and reliability of this method. The reproducibilities were 97.321.79, 88.342.69 and 95.632.94 for preparations A, B and C respectively, which are within the acceptable limits set forth by the ASEAN analytical validation guidelines, which ensure the precision of the method under the same operating conditions over a short time interval and the inter-assay precision within the laboratory. The proposed method is therefore a simple, rapid, accurate, precise and inexpensive technique for the routine analysis of makeup remover efficacy.