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The formation of the Government of Western Australia is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1890, although it has been amended many times since then. Since 1901 Western Australia has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Australian Constitution regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Western Australia ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to the Commonwealth, but retained complete independence in all other areas. Western Australia is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom.Legislative power rests with the Parliament of Western Australia, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of Western Australia, and the two Houses, the Western Australian Legislative Council and the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers. In practice executive power is exercised by the Premier of Western Australia and the Cabinet, who are appointed by the Governor, but who hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Western Australia and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia has final jurisdiction. Other federal courts also have jurisdiction over certain matters, but only insofar as the Australian Constitution grants the federal government power to make laws for such matters. Wikipedia.

Kilminster K.,Government of Western Australia
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

Estuarine environments are particularly vulnerable to human impacts. In this study, trace elements in Ruppia megacarpa, Halophila ovalis, sediment and porewater were analysed to assess the potential contamination of the Leschenault Estuary, Western Australia, from a primarily agricultural drain. Sediment concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni and were highest nearest the drain while Al, As, Cr, Fe and Zn and were highest further from the drain. H. ovalis showed greater accumulation of Fe, Al, and As than R. megacarpa. Concentrations of Fe, Al, As, and Ni were generally higher in below-ground plant parts than above, suggesting uptake of these trace elements via the sediment-route pathway. This study suggested that the drain was a source of Cu and Mn, with these elements entering the estuary through water inflows. As and Fe, were highest furthest from the drain suggesting input of trace elements from sources other than the drain under study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chin A.,James Cook University | Kyne P.M.,Charles Darwin University | Walker T.I.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Walker T.I.,University of Melbourne | McAuley R.B.,Government of Western Australia
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

An Integrated Risk Assessment for Climate Change (IRACC) is developed and applied to assess the vulnerability of sharks and rays on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) to climate change. The IRACC merges a traditional climate change vulnerability framework with approaches from fisheries ecological risk assessments. This semi-quantitative assessment accommodates uncertainty and can be applied at different spatial and temporal scales to identify exposure factors, at-risk species and their key biological and ecological attributes, critical habitats a'nd ecological processes, and major knowledge gaps. Consequently, the IRACC can provide a foundation upon which to develop climate change response strategies. Here, we describe the assessment process, demonstrate its application to GBR shark and ray species, and explore the issues affecting their vulnerability to climate change. The assessment indicates that for the GBR, freshwater/estuarine and reef associated sharks and rays are most vulnerable to climate change, and that vulnerability is driven by case-specific interactions of multiple factors and species attributes. Changes in temperature, freshwater input and ocean circulation will have the most widespread effects on these species. Although relatively few GBR sharks and rays were assessed as highly vulnerable, their vulnerability increases when synergies with other factors are considered. This is especially true for freshwater/estuarine and coastal/inshore sharks and rays. Reducing the impacts of climate change on the GBR's sharks and rays requires a range of approaches including mitigating climate change and addressing habitat degradation and sustainability issues. Species-specific conservation actions may be required for higher risk species (e.g. the freshwater whipray, porcupine ray, speartooth shark and sawfishes) including reducing mortality, preserving coastal catchments and estuarine habitats, and addressing fisheries sustainability. The assessment identified many knowledge gaps concerning GBR habitats and processes, and highlights the need for improved understanding of the biology and ecology of the sharks and rays of the GBR. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Ichthyoplankton sampling and ovarian characteristics were used to elucidate whether the reproductive cycles of a spawning aggregation of snapper Pagrus auratus in a nearshore marine embayment were temporally and spatially specific and related with environmental conditions. The reproductive dynamics of this aggregation were studied over four consecutive years (2001-2004.Spawning occurred between September and January each year, when water temperatures ranged from 15·8 to 23·1° C. In all 4 years, the cumulative egg densities in Cockburn Sound were highest when water temperatures were between the narrow range of 19-20° C. The spawning fraction of females was monthly bimodal and peaked during new and the full moons at 96-100% and c. 75%, respectively. The backcalculated ages of P. auratus eggs collected from 16 ichthyoplankton surveys demonstrated that P. auratus in Cockburn Sound spawn at night during the 3 h following the high tide. The spatial distributions of P. auratus eggs in Cockburn Sound during the peak reproductive period in all 4 years were consistent, further implying spawning was temporally and spatially specific. High concentrations of recently spawned eggs (8-16 h old) demonstrated spawning also occurred within the adjacent marine embayments of Owen Anchorage and Warnbro Sound. Water circulation in Cockburn and Warnbro Sounds resembled an eddy that was most prominent during the period of highest egg densities, thereby facilitating the retention of eggs in these areas. The reproductive cycles of P. auratus described in this study have assisted managers with the appropriate temporal and spatial scale for a closed fishing season to protect these spawning aggregations. ©2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Source

Choo S.,Government of Western Australia
Continuum | Year: 2011

Markets transform the streets of Malaysia with smells, textures, sounds, colours, and flavours that shift with daily, seasonal, and ritual time. Time is experienced through the consumption, production, ingestion, and practice of food; and this experience is mediated by the senses. In multiethnic Malaysia different temporalities coexist, patterning public space and the marketplace with the varying signs of their passing. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Malaysia, and by mapping the transformation of Malaysian markets through ritual and everyday food, this article brings together the phenomenal and the semiotic to explore how culturally embedded temporalities express themselves spatially through food in shared, and sometimes contested, locales. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Edwards R.,Government of Western Australia
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2012

This paper provides an historical analysis of the National Country Music Muster, a country music festival held in a forest outside of Gympie, a town in rural southeast Queensland, Australia, between the period 1982 and 2006 (the first twenty-five years of the event). This article analyses the origins of the Muster, demonstrating how local events are often developed as a result of regional traditions and assets, or 'countryside capital' (. Garrod et al., 2006). While this countryside capital was used to develop the Muster, this paper will demonstrate the event created its own capital, which the Gympie community has then utilised. The Muster has enabled the development of community capacity in three key ways: community not-for-profit groups have received increased income through participation as volunteers at the Muster; collaborative efforts between groups have developed senses of community on site; and the Muster has fostered social capital development by encouraging volunteer groups to work on site, all of which, of course, ensures the Muster continues to operate. Additionally, the Muster has provided the impetus for the creation of two country music focused cultural institutions in Gympie, as well as several spin-off events, which seek to capitalise on the increased traffic through town during the Muster period. Each of these institutions and spin off events has helped embed country music within Gympie's cultural economy. Further, they provide a clear demonstration of a rural community actively and creatively deploying its cultural capital in order both to buttress itself against fluctuations in the town's fortunes and to assert a locally relevant country identity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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