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Salt Lake City, India

Biswas A.,Government of West Bengal | Chattopadhyay G.,University of Calcutta | Das M.,University of Calcutta
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to theWHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I 51R 59N 108, with pfdhps, G 437 and/or E 540. The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Plasmodium vivax malaria, though benign, has now become a matter of concern due to recent reports of life-threatening severity and development of parasite resistance to different antimalarial drugs. The magnitude of the problem is still undetermined. The present study was undertaken to determine the in vivo efficacy of chloroquine (CQ) and chloroquine plus primaquine in P. vivax malaria in Kolkata and polymorphisms in the pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes. A total of 250 patients with P. vivax monoinfection were recruited and randomized into two groups, A and B; treated with chloroquine and chloroquine plus primaquine, respectively; and followed up for 42 days according to theWHOprotocol of 2009. Data were analyzed using per-protocol analyses. We assessed polymorphisms of the pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes by a DNA-sequencing method. Out of the 250 patients recruited, 204 completed a 42-day follow-up period, 101 in group A and 103 in group B. In group A, the non-PCR-corrected efficacy of CQ was 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.944 to 1.00), and in group B, all cases were classified as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). Day 3 positivity was observed in 11 (5.3%) cases. No specific mutation pattern was recorded in the pvcrt-o gene. Eight nonsynonymous mutations were found in the pvmdr1 gene, three of which were new. The Y976F mutation was not detected in any isolate. Chloroquine, either alone or in combination with primaquine, is still effective against P. vivax malaria in the study area. (The study protocol was registered in CTRI [Clinical Trial Registry-India] of the Indian council of Medical Research under registration no. CTRI/2011/09/002031.). Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Sasmal S.,Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education and Research | Majumdar S.,Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education and Research | Gupta M.,Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education and Research | Mukherjee A.,University of Calcutta | Mukherjee P.K.,Government of West Bengal
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Objective: To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity. Methods: Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Results: After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (. P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature. Conclusion: The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

Mukherjee N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Bhattacharya N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Alam N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Roy A.,Government of West Bengal | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Science

The aim of the study is to understand the importance of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the development of breast cancer (BC) and its association with different clinicopathological parameters. Alterations (deletion/methylation/expression) of some Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonists like APC, SFRP1/2, CDH1 and activator β-catenin (CTNNB1) were analyzed in primary BC in Indian patients. High frequencies (65-70%) of overall alterations (deletion/methylation) of the antagonists were seen in the BC samples. Also, 99% (156/158) of the samples showed alterations in any one of the genes, indicating the importance of this pathway in the development of this tumor. Co-alterations of these genes were observed in 30% of samples, with significantly high alterations in late-onset (37%) and estrogen receptor (ER)-/progesterone receptor (PR)- (37%) BC compared with early onset (21%) and ER/PR+ (18%) BC samples, respectively. Significantly high (P-value= 0.001-0.02) alterations of APC and CDH1 genes were seen in ER-/PR- BC compared with ER/PR+ BC. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of the Wnt antagonists in BC concordant with their molecular alterations. Nuclear localization of β-catenin showed significant association with alterations in the antagonists and was also significantly high in the ER-/PR- BC samples. Alterations of SFRP2 coupled with a late clinical stage and low/nulliparity predicted the worst prognosis in BC patients. Therefore, the present study suggests that cumulative alterations in more than one Wnt antagonist along with increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin play an important role in the development of BC and have significant clinical as well as prognostic importance. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association. Source

Sardar B.,Government of West Bengal | Singh A.K.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Raghuwanshi N.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Chatterjee C.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering

In this investigation, an effort was made to model the hydrology and to identify critical erosion-prone areas of the Barakar Basin (6,293 km2) in Jharkhand state, India using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). This effort is helpful to select and adopt suitable soil conservation measures to reduce soil erosion. Input data include daily rainfall, and air temperature; and monthly runoff, sediment yield and reservoir inflow data of 5 years. Additional data were the topographical map, soil map, land resource data, and satellite imageries of the study area. The model was calibrated and validated for monthly inflow to the Maithon and Tilaiya Reservoirs for the periods of 1997-1999 and 2000-2001, respectively. In addition, it was also calibrated and validated for monthly runoff and sediment yield from two subwatersheds (Banha and Karso), located within Barakar Basin for the monsoon season of the same period. The calibration and validation results established good agreement (less than 10% deviation) between the observed- and model-predicted values in all cases. The identified critical areas using model-predicted sediment yield were compared with results of a report obtained from the Soil Conservation Department of Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), Hazaribagh. The erosion class map developed using simulation results matched spatially well with the DVC-prepared map based on sediment yield index. A management plan was developed to treat the subwatersheds with conservation practices. Subwatersheds were divided into seven priority classes for treating them sequentially to reduce reservoir sedimentation rate. In the model, conservation practices were accounted for through curve number, universal soil loss equation (USLE) cover factor, USLE support factor, and farm pond. Adaptation of the management plan resulted in decreased sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate decreased from the current rate of 0.76 and 4.59 mm3/year to 0.56 and 1.41 mm3/year for Tilaiya and Maithon Reservoirs, respectively. Furthermore, the life of Tilaiya and Maithon Reservoirs increased by 29 and 166 years, respectively. These results suggest that SWAT can be used to identify critical subwatersheds and to develop management plans to control erosion from critical areas by reducing the reservoir sedimentation rate. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

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