Swapna N.,National Center for Biological science |
Swapna N.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
Radhakrishna S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies |
Gupta A.K.,Government of Tripura |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2010
In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.372.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Das A.,Government of Tripura |
Debnath U.,Horticultural Research Complex |
Das S.,Horticultural Research Complex
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a commercially important crop in the international trade, which offers considerable scope for enhancing the economy of our country and state by earning more foreign exchange and by generating more employment potential. The agro-climatic conditions (humid subtropical), fertile and acidic soil with good depth and abundant rainfall favour the cultivation of cashew in the state. Tripura has an undulating topography (small and medium hillocks) of red-lataritic soil having the opportunity for commercial cultivation of eco-friendly cashew for maintaining sustainable production. The area under cashew cultivation in Tripura is 4,387 ha with an annual production of 2,345.00 mt, an average productivity of 0.53 t ha-1, which is far below the national productivity. The main cashew genotypes evaluated in the state are 'BLA-39-4', 'Priyanka' (H 1591), 'Vengurla-4', 'Ullal-1', 'Ullal-3', 'Dhana' (H 1608), 'NRCC Selection-2', 'BPP-8', 'Jhargram-1', 'V.R.I-3' and 'Bhashkara'. Out of all cultivars and hybrids studies, the cultivar 'BLA-39-4' was found to show good performance in respect to yield and other quality parameters. The seedling progenies are heterogeneous with respect to flowering, fruiting and other characteristics due to the cross pollinated nature. To overcome this problem, vegetatively propagated cashew grafts are recommended as planting martial i.e., soft-wood grafting for early, uniform and quality yield. The grafting is done in the months of June-July with success rates of 75-90% and success rates less in the cooler months like October, November, December and January, respectively. Low productivity recorded in the state is due to improper management and most of the orchards are having the problem of water stress from November to March, leading to severe moisture stress and heavy rain from May to September causes heavy soil erosion, nutrition loss from top soil. The soil across the state is acidic in nature, which hampers the availability of important nutrients to the plants and affects the yield. Most of the farmers are small and marginal and very rarely make use of soil amendments like lime in the gardens. Depletion of nutrients by washing of rich top soil and leaching losses cause nutritional deficiencies. Cashew provides nutrition, generates income, improves the socio-economical status and poverty alleviation in rural and interior areas of the state. This paper would focus on potential of cashew cultivation in Tripura and improving the economy in rural and interior area of the state.
Sarma K.,Center for Animal Ecology and Wildlife BiologyGauhati UniversityGuwahati |
Gupta A.K.,Government of Tripura
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2016
The present study reports the population of Macaca munzala in Tawang and West Kameng districts and its predictive distribution range in Arunachal Pradesh, estimated using ecological niche modeling. Environmental variables and occurrence data from a preliminary survey were used in the MaxEnt modeling, a statistical model to know the potential distribution area of the enigmatic species in Arunachal Pradesh. Later, a population survey was carried out in Tawang and West Kameng districts of the state following existing trails and paths. The distribution model revealed that only 2.4% of the total landmass of the state is potential distribution habitat range for M. munzala, whereas 10.19% of the total area of the two districts were shown to be potential habitat of the species. A total number of 971 individuals (including two solitary males) comprising 41 troops of M. munzala were recorded during the population survey. The mean troop size was 23.63±1.21 individuals per troop ranging from 12 to 44 individuals. On average, M. munzala troops were comprised of juveniles (30.37%), adult females (23.83%), infants (18.22%), adult males (11.53%), sub-adult females (9.81%), and sub-adult males (6.23%). Our observed population size of M. munzala is higher in Tawang and West Kameng districts when compared with the earlier available records. This study showed the potential distribution of M. munzala based on environmental variables and the present population status in Tawang and West Kameng districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Suresh C.P.,Postharvest Technology |
Das A.,Government of Tripura |
Dinesh M.R.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Papaya (Carica papaya) is regarded as the wonder fruit of the tropics and subtropics. It has got great importance due to its high nutritive value and production potentiality. Owing to the increasing demand for fruits, the area and production have increased during the last few years in the state. Tripura is a hilly and land locked state, with total geographical area of about 10,491 km2 of which 60% is hill with dense forest and 27% is under cultivation. Agro-climatic conditions (humid subtropical), fertile and acidic soil with good depth and abundant rainfall favour the cultivation of papaya. Systematic and accurate estimate of area and production are not available in the state. But still papaya is the most important fruit crop in the state and is cultivated in about 1,334 ha with an annual production of 18,455.00 t with a productivity of 13.83 t ha-1, which is far below the national productivity of 31.69 t ha-1. The few genotypes evaluated are 'Coorg Honey Dew', 'Pusa Dwarf', 'Pusa Majesty', 'Pusa Nanha', 'Washington', 'Surya' and local types. The 'Coorg Honey Dew', 'Pusa Majesty' and local type are performing good with respect to yield and quality parameters. Since, it has been grown for the last several years in backyard gardens, many mixed populations have developed, which need sanitization and also have scope to choose a superior clone. Low productivity recorded in the state is due to improper management. Most of the orchards are having the problem of water stress from December to March leading to severe moisture stress and heavy rain from April to October causes heavy soil erosion, nutrition loss from top soil and it also offers a favorable climate for attracting many diseases and insects. The serious problem at seedling stage (damping off), mosaic, Papaya ring spot virus, leaf curl, mealy bug and mites are very destructive at different stages of plant growth. Frost during December-January in the state is also creating problems for papaya cultivation. The soil across the state is acidic in nature, which hampers the availability of the important nutrients to the plants and affects the yield. Depletion of nutrients by washing of rich top soil and leaching losses are causing nutritional deficiencies. The proper management practices like GAP, with moisture conservation methods during stress period (December to March) and efficient and timely management of diseases and pests through environmental friendly approaches will boost the production and productivity of papaya.
Suresh C.P.,Postharvest Technology |
Dinesh M.R.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research |
Das A.,Government of Tripura
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Papaya (Carica papaya) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions in the world. It is polygamous and is a cross pollinated. It is one of the few fruit crops that flowers and fruits throughout the year giving early and steady returns. The present investigation was carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, India to assess fruit set, fruit maturity, number of seeds per fruit and germination percentage in the papaya cultivars 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Washington'. Varied results were obtained for 'Sunrise Solo' and 'Washington'. The study showed that the seed germination (63.33%) and fruit maturity (154 days) were early in the cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' compared to 'Washington'. The percentage of fruit set (76.09%) was more in the case of cultivar 'Sunrise Solo' and germination percentage (63.33%) was also more compared to the cultivar 'Washington'. Among the cultivars studied, 'Sunrise Solo' was observed to be the best for seed production compared to 'Washington'.
Baidya D.,Government of Tripura |
Chakraborty I.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya |
Saha J.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015
An attempt was made to utilize few widely available tropical fruits to develop wine with the objective of comparing the fermentation efficiency (along with progress in fermentation) of two efficient yeast isolates with commercially available strain. Fruit wine from juices of fully ripe mango, jackfruit and pineapple alone and in blended combinations of all three fruit juice (2: 1: 2) was prepared using two different yeasts (Y4 and Y7) isolated from natural plain date palm juice and one standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC-170) collected from IMTECH, Chandigar. Juices were extracted by using pectinase enzyme at 0.15–0.20 % of pulp. Changes in °Brix, titratable acid content, pH, total viable yeast count were recorded and rate of fermentation, sugar use efficiency were determined at every 24-hour interval up to the completion (6 days after inoculation) of fermentation. Considering all the quality parameter as well as fermentation efficiency, yeast isolate Y7 was found superior followed by Y4 as fermenting agent and pineapple juice as sole substrate found to be the most suitable medium for production of wine followed by fruit juice blending. In interpreting the efficacy of fruit and yeast in combination, pineapple juice inoculated with Y7 found to be the best in reducing the degree Brix to its lowest from initial 24 degree. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)
PubMed | Government of Tripura and Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016
An attempt was made to utilize few widely available tropical fruits to develop wine with the objective of comparing the fermentation efficiency (along with progress in fermentation) of two efficient yeast isolates with commercially available strain. Fruit wine from juices of fully ripe mango, jackfruit and pineapple alone and in blended combinations of all three fruit juice (2: 1: 2) was prepared using two different yeasts (Y4 and Y7) isolated from natural plain date palm juice and one standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC-170) collected from IMTECH, Chandigar. Juices were extracted by using pectinase enzyme at 0.15-0.20% of pulp. Changes in Brix, titratable acid content, pH, total viable yeast count were recorded and rate of fermentation, sugar use efficiency were determined at every 24-hour interval up to the completion (6days after inoculation) of fermentation. Considering all the quality parameter as well as fermentation efficiency, yeast isolate Y7 was found superior followed by Y4 as fermenting agent and pineapple juice as sole substrate found to be the most suitable medium for production of wine followed by fruit juice blending. In interpreting the efficacy of fruit and yeast in combination, pineapple juice inoculated with Y7 found to be the best in reducing the degree Brix to its lowest from initial 24 degree.
Roy B.,Tripura Institute of Technology |
Banik S.,Government of Tripura |
Chaki N.,University of Calcutta |
Saha B.,Tripura Institute of Technology
Proceedings - 2nd International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing, ARTCom 2010 | Year: 2010
The challenges of mobile ad hoc network are to maintain quality of services and performance. Many routing protocols like AODV discover routes whenever required by the source node and the benefit in doing so is that no prior knowledge of the topology is required. The AODV routing protocol is commonly and effectively used for mobile, ad-hoc nodes [4, 7, 8, 15, 22, 23]. So far, many maintenance strategies have been proposed on AODV to provide better QoS services [7, 10, 19, 21] performances. Some has used the radio propagation characteristics of mobile nodes in ad hoc network [12, 23] during route maintenance . Some modification has been done on computation of delay parameter [16, 19, 22]. The other modification was on multi route selection during route discovery considering only delay as QoS parameter [5, 23]. This paper aims towards proposing a new route maintenance strategy with multiple options that will lead to better performance during link failure on a route. During route discovery and route reply procedure  two different QoS parameters considered here are delay and bandwidth. The routes should be selected during route discovery process. The route maintenance strategy may be applied to both the routes independently and simultaneously by the internal nodes where the link failure has occurred. © 2010 IEEE.
TarunKantiDebnath,Government of Tripura |
Pal M.,National Institute of Technology Agartala |
Datta S.,Tripura Institute of Technology |
Roy P.K.,Jadavpur University
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research | Year: 2012
Existing Solid Waste Management system of Agartala city is based on the strategy adopted in the early years of eighty decade of last century. Now area of the city and it'spopulation has been few fold more. Accordingly revised strategy for Solid Waste Management of the city based on systematic study and analysis was imperative. Detailed study on the basis of samples from residential, commercial and institutional segments of waste generation was conducted for one year with a view to ascertain the quality and volume of the wastes of the city. Study concludes that average per day solid wastes generated by the city is 109.416 tone. Study indicates potentiality of solid wastes for composting as organic solid waste's C/N ratio is lower (15 to 25). Thermal value of paper, hardboard, garden trimmings was measured and found within the range of around 5 to 15 Kilo BTU/Kg. © Research India Publications.
Das B.,Government of Tripura |
Saha R.,National Institute of Technology Agartala |
Haldar S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2016
Inherent variability of soil considerably affects the seismic design of piled raft supported structures. Conventional design of such structure adopts fixity at base level of superstructure and pile head. However, soil-pile-superstructure interaction largely affects the fundamental frequency and design forces in columns and piles. In contrast, fixed base assumption cannot capture soil structure interaction (SSI) effect. In addition, uncertainty in soil may further leads to a change in the dynamic behavior of the system. This study examines the effect of inherent variability of undrained shear strength of soil in seismic design of structures supported by piled raft foundation embedded in soft clay. Superstructure is modeled as lumped mass stick model and piled raft slab is modeled as rigid plate. Pile is modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam element and soil resistance is modeled using linear Winkler springs attached to the pile. Dynamic analysis is carried out in time domain to estimate the responses. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used for probabilistic assessment of the fundamental frequency and forces at column and pile attributing a wide range of parametric variation of a representative soil-piled raft-superstructure system. The study shows that the fundamental frequency and forces in column and pile changes significantly due to soil variability. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.