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Mead E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Gittelsohn J.,Johns Hopkins University | De Roose E.,Government of the Northwest Territories | Sharma S.,University of Alberta
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Background: With increasing chronic disease amongst Inuvialuit in the Canadian Arctic, research on dietary behaviours and their determinants in this population is needed to develop nutritional behaviour change intervention strategies. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions towards healthy eating and healthy eating behaviours of Inuvialuit adults in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Methods: The Adult Impact Questionnaire was developed from behavioural theories and workshops held in the communities. It was conducted with adult Inuvialuit (≥19 years) from randomly selected households in three NWT communities to collect data on the psychosocial constructs of healthy food knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions, and the dietary behaviours of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition and preparation. Associations between demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial constructs and behaviours were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Results: The 228 participants [mean (SD) age 43.4 (13.6) years; response rates 65-85%] acquired non-nutrient-dense foods a mean (SD) of 2.7 (3.0) times more frequently than nutrient-dense, low sugar and low fat foods. Increased intention was associated with a greater frequency of acquiring healthy foods (β = 0.17, P = 0.012) and a lower frequency of acquiring unhealthy foods (β = -0.18, P = 0.008). Overall, participants reported using food preparation methods that reduce fat content slightly more than methods that add fat [mean (SD) score 0.3 (1.9)]. Use of healthier food preparation methods was associated with higher levels of healthy food knowledge (β = 0.26, P < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) and intentions (β = 0.22, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Healthy food intention was the construct most significantly associated with all three healthier dietary behaviours. Interventions that target intentions to change food choice and preparation may be effective strategies to improve dietary intake in Inuvialuit populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source


Kolahdooz F.,University of Alberta | Spearing K.,University of Alberta | Corriveau A.,Government of the Northwest Territories | Sharma S.,University of Alberta
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2013

Background: Previous studies highlight a possible association between alcohol-drinking patterns and dietary inadequacies, which may have negative implications, particularly for women of child-bearing age. The present study aimed to compare dietary adequacy among alcohol drinkers versus nondrinkers in Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 92 randomly selected women of childbearing age (19-44 years) was conducted in three communities in the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada, using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analysed to compare mean daily energy and nutrient intakes, dietary adequacy and nutrient densities (per 4184 kJ) between alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers, as well as heavy drinkers and nonheavy drinkers, using the nonparametric Wilcoxen rank sum test. Results: The response rate was between 65% and 85% depending on the community sampled. Of the study participants, 54% (n = 49) were drinkers and 46% (n = 42) were nondrinkers. Of the drinkers, 45% (n = 22) were heavy drinkers. Mean energy intakes were high among all women, although they were significantly higher among drinkers [17 179 kJ (4106 kcal)] compared to nondrinkers [13 317 kJ (3183 kcal)]. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake between the two groups; however, drinkers had a lower nutrient density for most nutrients. Heavy drinkers had a significantly lower nutrient density for all nutrients, except protein, iron, and vitamins B6, C and D, compared to nonheavy drinkers. Conclusions: The findings of the present study provide evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of child-bearing age, regardless of alcohol-drinking behaviour. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source


Erber E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Beck L.,Northwest Territories and Nunavut Public Health Association | De Roose E.,Government of the Northwest Territories | Sharma S.,University of Alberta
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Background: Chronic disease prevalence amongst Canadian Arctic populations is increasing, but the literature amongst Inuvialuit is limited. The present study aimed to provide baseline data that could be used to monitor changes in chronic disease risk factors and long-term health in the Arctic by determining prevalence and risk factors of self-reported chronic disease amongst adult Inuvialuit in remote communities. Methods: Self-reported demographics and history of chronic disease (hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and cancer) were collected in three communities between July 2007 and July 2008 in the Northwest Territories. Food frequency questionnaires recorded dietary intake, International Physical Activity Questionnaires recorded physical activity and anthropometric measures of height and weight were obtained. Results: Response rates ranged from 65-85%. More than 20% of the 228 participants aged 19-84 years reported having a chronic disease. Age-adjusted prevalence was 28, 9, 9 and 6 per 100 for hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, respectively. Compared with non-cases, participants reporting hypertension were more likely to have a higher body mass index and a lower level of education. Hypertension was more common amongst participants reporting heart disease and diabetes than Inuvialuit not reporting these morbidities. Conclusions: Inuvialuit participants in this study were most affected by hypertension and diabetes compared with heart disease or any cancer. Female participants had a higher prevalence of heart disease compared with the Canadian average. Primary preventive strategies are necessary to mitigate the increasing rates of chronic disease risk factors in this population. Further studies with a larger sample size and measured chronic disease are necessary to confirm the findings obtained in the present study. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source


Hopping B.N.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Erber E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Beck L.,Northwest Territories and Nunavut Public Health Association | De Roose E.,Government of the Northwest Territories | Sharma S.,University of Alberta
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Background: Inuvialuit in Arctic Canada are undergoing nutrition and lifestyle transitions that encourage decreased physical activity (PA) and increased body mass index (BMI), although data specific to PA and BMI within this unique population are not currently available. The present study aimed to characterise current PA and BMI levels in a sample of Inuvialuit adults. Methods: Inuvialuit adults randomly selected from a cross-sectional survey of three communities in the Northwest Territories, Canada, completed an adapted International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and an anthropometric questionnaire to obtain height and weight. Data were analysed using the standardised IPAQ protocol, and the results are presented by gender and age group (≤50 and >50 years). Results: One hundred and ninety-six Inuvialuit adults [148 women, 48 men; mean (standard deviation (SD)) ages 45 (14) and 41 (14) years, respectively; age range 19-84 years] completed the IPAQ (response rates 65-85%). Seventy-one percent of men and 74% of women allowed height measurements, whilst 81% and 84% allowed weight measurements, respectively; the remainder provided self-reported anthropometrics. Mean (SD) BMIs were 28.6 (7.7) kg/m2 for males and 30.5 (8.8) kg/m2 for females. The greatest percentage of participants in both gender and age groups fell into the obese BMI category. Self-reported PA was high, with means for men and participants ≤50 years in the high category of PA and means for women and participants >50 years in the medium category. Almost two-thirds (65%) of participants were classified as being overweight or obese, although 89% reported medium or high levels of PA. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present study indicate widespread overweight/obesity accompanying high levels of self-reported PA. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd. Source


Kolahdooz F.,University of Alberta | Barr A.,University of Alberta | Roache C.,University of Alberta | Sheehy T.,University College Cork | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Methods: This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE) and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE). Results: The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE = 5.13±5.34 mg/day; NTFE = 3.5±3.22 mg/day, p = 0·004). The majority of women (87%) were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1299±798 mg/day) and NTFE (992±704 mg/day; p = 0.0005), 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE = 30.7%; NTFE = 39.1%) and calcium (TFE = 25.5%; NTFE = 34.5%). Conclusions: Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern. © 2013 Kolahdooz et al. Source

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