Frequent exposure to suboptimal temperatures in vaccine cold-chain system in india: Results of temperature monitoring in 10 states [Exposition fréquente à des températures suboptimales dans la chaîne du froid des vaccins en Inde: Résultats du suivi des températures dans 10 états]
Murhekar M.V.,National Institute of Epidemiology |
Dutta S.,United Nations Childrens Fund |
Kapoor A.N.,Indian Council of Medical Research |
Bitragunta S.,Medical and Familty Welfare |
And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013
Objective To estimate the proportion of time the vaccines in the cold-chain system in India are exposed to temperatures of < 0 or > 8 °C. Methods In each of 10 states, the largest district and the one most distant from the state capital were selected for study. Four boxes, each containing an electronic temperature recorder and two vials of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine, were placed in the state or regional vaccine store for each study state. Two of these boxes were then shipped - one per facility - towards the two most peripheral health facilities where vaccine was stored in each study district. The boxes were shipped, handled and stored as if they were routine vaccine supplies. Findings In state, regional and district vaccine stores and peripheral health facilities, respectively, the temperatures in the boxes exceeded 8 °C for 14.3%, 13.2%, 8.3% and 14.7% of their combined storage times and fell below 0 °C for 1.5%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 10.5% of these times. The boxes also spent about 18% and 7% of their combined times in transit at < 0 and > 8 °C, respectively. In shake tests conducted at the end of the study, two thirds of the vaccine vials in the boxes showed evidence of freezing. Conclusion While exposure to temperatures above 8 °C occurred at every level of vaccine storage, exposure to subzero temperatures was only frequent during vaccine storage at peripheral facilities and vaccine transportation. Systematic efforts are needed to improve temperature monitoring in the cold-chain system in India.
Kannan P.,Government of Tamil Nadu |
Kolandaswamy K.G.,Government of Tamil Nadu
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives | Year: 2014
Objectives: To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods: 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73' N; Longitude: 78° 97' E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75' N; Longitude: 79° 92' E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25' N; Longitude: 79° 65' E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result: There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion: From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. © 2014.
Arunprakash M.,University of Madras |
Giridharan L.,Government of Tamil Nadu |
Krishnamurthy R.R.,University of Madras |
Jayaprakash M.,University of Madras
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014
Chennai is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India, and is located in the southeastern part of the country. The average rate of population growth of the city is 25 % per decade and this is recurrently reducing the green-covered area in the city. Exceptionally, during the post-economic liberalization period (i.e., between the years 1997 and 2007), the city lost up to 99 % of its green-covered areas at some parts. Subsequently, the Chennai City started to experience wide range of environmental issues, including groundwater pollution and the effects of groundwater depletion. As a consequence of these factors, a study was undertaken to determine the impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality. In the present study, groundwater samples were collected from 54 stations from the study area during the premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons for the year 2011–2012 and were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and trace elements. The type of water that predominated in the study area was assessed based on hydrochemical facies. The study of the hydrochemical characteristics of the major ions in these waters shows that in premonsoon, the alkalis and the alkaline earth metals are found to be balanced by chlorides and bicarbonates and sulphates, respectively. Reverse ion exchange study illustrates that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations are interrelated through reverse ion exchange. Box and whisker plots illustrate the seasonal effect on the chemical parameters of the groundwater. Gibbs’ diagram reveals that the chemical composition of the groundwater in the study area is predominated by rock–water interaction. Besides, suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, Wilcox and USSL diagrams. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Kalaivanan R.,University of Madras |
Jayaprakash M.,University of Madras |
Nethaji S.,University of Madras |
Gopal V.,Anna University |
Giridharan L.,Government of Tamil Nadu
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016
The present study aims to identify the natural and anthropogenic imprints left by the accumulation of elements and to determine/identify the current level of enrichment of major oxides in the Pichavaram mangrove sediments. Pichavaram mangrove is a dynamic intertidal environment lying in between the Vellar and Coleroon estuaries in the Cauvery delta along the east coast of India. In the present study, results of texture studies reveal highly variable depositional environment in upper and lower portion of Core 1 and middle portion of Core 2. In both the cores, decrease in grain size is observed in the upper portion which may suggest that the sediments in the upper portion were deposited at low energy condition. Mn/Al, Mg/Al, Ca/Al, Ti/Al, P/Al and K/Al ratios are found to be low in the both the core samples. Ti elemental ratio is lower in both core samples indicating that Ti concentrations in marine sediments are the best indicators of lithogenous material flux to the marine environment. The concentration of various elements in the core can be summarized as Si > Al > Fe > Mn > Mg > Ca > Ti > P > K. The PIA values of Core 1 indicate that the sediments were derived from predominant weathering up to 40 cm and the remaining sediments derived from unweathered matrices. Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) values of most of the downcore samples of Core 2 are found to be more than 40 suggesting the predominance of weathering activity. Low PIA values are observed at the depth of 54–70 cm indicating the moderately weathered nature of the sediments in the study area. Positive correlation between Fe and Mg and their negative relationship with silica indicates the presence of ferromagnesian debris in top of the sediments. Major oxide geochemistry indicates a heterogeneous and moderately weathered to unweathered source for the sediments of the present study area. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
PubMed | University of Calcutta, National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, University of Madras and Government of Tamil Nadu
Type: | Journal: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety | Year: 2015
Accumulation of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd) were investigated in water, sediment (n=20) along with six fish of diverse feeding guilds (Sillago sihama, Liza parsia, Etroplus suratensis, Oreochromis mossambicus, Arius parkii and Gerres oyena) from the Ennore creek, northern part of Chennai metropolitan megacity, southeast coast of India. Dissolved trace metals (DTMs) in surface water samples and total trace metals (TTMs) in surface sediments (top 0-10cm) indicate that concentration pattern of metals was higher in the discharge point of the river/channels entering the main creek. The maximum mean values of DTMs exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in g/L): Fe (1698)>Mn (24)>Zn (14.50)>Pb (13.89)>Ni (6.73)>Cu (3.53)>Co (3.04)>Cr (2.01) whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (gg(-1)): Fe (4300)>Mn (640)>Cr (383)>Zn (155)>Cu (102)>Ni (35)>Pb (32)>Cd (0.51) are mainly due to the industrial complexes right on the banks of the river/channels. Species-specific heterogeneous patterns of tissue metal loads were apparent and the overall metal enrichment exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in gg(-1)): Cu (7.33)>Fe (6.53)>Zn (4.91)>Cr (1.67)>Pb (1.33)>Ni (0.44)>Mn (0.43)>Co (0.36)>Cd (0.11). This indicates that metals are absorbed onto the different organs, which is also endorsed by the calculated values of bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) (avg. muscle 117, gill 126, liver 123, intestine 118) in fishes. The high calculated biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) (0.437) for the species Arius parkii is considered to be a potential bioindicator in this region. The enrichment of trace metals is also supported by the association of metals in water, sediments and different body organs (muscle, gill, liver, intestine) of fish samples. Comparative studies with other coastal regions indicate considerable enrichment of DTMs & TTMs in sediments as well as in various organs of fish samples. Holistic spatial, temporal monitoring and comprehensive regional strategies are required to prevent health risks and ensure nutritional safety conditions.
Saxena S.,Government of Tamil Nadu |
Geethalakshmi V.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Lakshmanan A.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Weather and Climate Extremes | Year: 2013
Coastal zone is exposed to various natural forces including cyclones and tsunamis, which are constantly affecting the shorelines, beaches and headlands, causing storm surges, erosion/accretion, landslides, and coastal flooding. Magnitude and risk of disasters are directly proportional to the sensitivity and inversely proportional to degree of resilience of exposed community. To mitigate the ill effects of hazards, a thorough understanding of the vulnerability causing factors and coping capabilities is required for which vulnerability analysis is essential. A study was undertaken in the most vulnerable coastal zone in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, with a goal to draw a comprehensive vulnerability framework combining Geo-Physical-Natural factors with Socio-Economic-Institutional factors responsible for causing vulnerability at habitation levels and to construct composite vulnerability index (CVI) and dimensional indices. Analysis on changes along the shoreline using the information extracted from the satellite imageries between the years 1972 and 2011 indicated that the average net rate of shoreline change was +0.15myear-1. Of the total length of 42km studied for shoreline changes, about 40.5% of the coastline is accreting, 15.72% is medium to highly eroded and 18.23% is classified under low erosion zone. The flood hazard mapping study undertaken for a stretch of ~14km along the Cuddalore coastline for 1-in-100-year extreme flood level, including local mean sea level and global sea-level rise, indicated maximum inundation level to be 3.62m form MSL for the Cuddalore coastal region. The composite hazard line drawn on the GIS map shows that in the study area seventeen habitations (coastal settlements) are vulnerable to storm surge coastal flooding generated by one in 100 year return period storm surge (3.62m height). CVI of 17 habitations in study area was developed on a scale of 'one' to 'five' by considering nine broad dimensions of vulnerability viz., geographic, demographic, institutional, natural, social, safety infrastructure, physical, livelihood and economic, each expressed by five indicators, using a total of seventy five variables of vulnerability, with weightage of 22.20%, 13.19%, 13.34%, 13.35%, 9.20%, 6.24%,5.89%, 9.83% and 6.77% respectively, arrived through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results indicated that two habitations viz. Samiyarpettai (3.18) and C. Pudupettai (3.10) have CVI in acutely vulnerable (level 3-CVI between 3 and 4) category and rest of the 15 habitations are in the highly vulnerable (level 2-CVI between 2 and 3) category. Dimension wise vulnerability indices appear to differ considerably among different habitations. Institutional vulnerability is in a lower range owing to a better prepared coastal community after 2004 Tsunami. CVI construction enables the policy makers to devise a suitable strategy for vulnerability reduction. The habitation vulnerability mapping provides information for prioritisation of the vulnerability dimensions and is a very useful tool for developing effective policy to reduce vulnerability at habitation level. © 2013 The Authors.
Elumalai G.,Government of Tamil Nadu |
Bhaskar G.B.,Tagore Engineering College |
Subash R.,Tagore Engineering College
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014
In the developing countries, the identification of Faulty Vehicle's by the enforcing authorities within a stipulated time is a challenging task. Hit and run accident vehicles, traffic-rule violators, theft vehicles, escaping an accused in a vehicle and nonpayment of tax vehicles etc., are called as faulty vehicles. In the existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), only the vehicles are being monitored, instead of catching the faulty vehicle. In this methodology, the vehicles are controlled from the control room itself within stipulated time duration by controlling the fuel mixture. The concept involves minimization or stoppage of fuel mixture to that particular vehicle (three -wheeler Auto and four -wheeler Maruthi 800), depending upon its location (GPS) and the traffic environment; by using the specially designed electronic control unit (ECU) and with the help of a network provider (GSM). The entire concept is explained in this paper with the help of block diagram and photographs. From this investigation it's observed that the vehicle could be stopped and it can be caught by the enforcing authority for necessary action. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
News Article | December 26, 2016
Tantiv4 is pleased to announce the unveiling of its flagship product, FetchitGO, at Connect 2016, the city’s premier event in ICT. The event, organized jointly by the Confederation of Indian Industry and the Government of Tamil Nadu, is being held for the 16th time. This year’s theme is “Building the Digital State: Fostering Ecosystem”. Mr. Lokesh Johri, CEO, Tantiv4 explained the advantages of Open Interoperability and Integration, adding “It is normal for each vendor to try and build silos for its products, such that you have to be buy controllers, actuators, and services from the same Company. However, as we have seen with the growth of smartphones, consumers much prefer an Open Platform which will work with multiple service providers. Today, we can deliver that”. FetchIT provides a single view to control and trigger IoT devices, with up to 16 programmable buttons. Each button is customizable by the end-user, to trigger actions. Unlike other products available, FetchIT can integrate with multiple ecosystems simultaneously, preventing vendor lock-in and enhancing the value for consumers. It also enables, through its use of data analytics and smartphone Apps, the ability to understand, predict and proactively trigger responses to consumer behavior. The in-home ecosystem uses standards-compliant technologies, including the Thread Protocol and IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN). “We are happy to see actual solutions in the consumer space that utilize the advantages and benefits that the IPv6 stack brings to the marketplace”, said Mr Linus Tan, VP, IPv6 Forum (Singapore). “This is a device that interoperates, and achieves fantastic power savings by its use of the standards”. Currently, FetchIT can be directly and simply utilized by end-users to control thousands of devices and from vendors like Phillips Hue, Amazon Alexa, Fitbit and Google Nest. It also integrates with software services such as Yahoo! News, Google Calendar, Yelp, and eBay. FetchIT operates via middleware services, supporting, among others, IFTTT and Stringify. All this is available to the end-user with no additional programming or license fees. “Additionally, DIY enthusiasts at home are creating smart ecosystems on their own, with the capacity to learn and build a system that works they wish it to, without being stuck if a device vendor goes out of business”, said Mr. Nehru Babu, of Tantiv4 India. Tantiv4, headquartered in Sunnyvale, CA, is a member of leading IoT industry associations like the Thread Group, and is committed to produce inter-operable ecosystem devices and protocols. If you would like more information about this topic, please contact Lokesh Johri at +1 408 838 5386 or email at contact(at)tantiv4(dot)com. FetchIT is a trademark of Tantiv4 Inc. All other trademarks used are the property of their respective owners.
Qadri S.M.H.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute |
Prabhakaran V.,Government of Tamil Nadu
Indian Silk | Year: 2012
India is surging ahead in production of quality silk i.e., bivoitine of high grades; movement is gradual but steady. And, here the exemplary position has been earned by Tamil Nadu. Thanks to consistent efforts made by the scientists of RSRS, Salem and CSRTI, Mysore along with the state department, and for the conviction nurtured by the Team to lead the country in bivoitine silk production. Presented here is the story how this feat could be achieved.
Bhaskaran E.,Government of Tamil Nadu
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011
The Chennai is an one of Automotive hub of India due to it's Automotive Industry presence producing over 40% of the India's Vehicle and Components. During 2001-02, the Automotive Component Industries(ACI) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has faced problems on infrastructure(Approach Road, Storm water drainage system, Sewerage System, Sewage treatment plant, Solid Waste Management, Landscaping, Street Lighting and Logistics/ Parking), technology, procurement, production and marketing. In the year 2004-05 under the Cluster Development Approach (CDA), they formed Auto Cluster (AC) got grant under Industrial Infrastructure Upgradation Scheme from Government of India under Public Private Partnership Concept and implemented UNIDO-AIEMA Auto Cluster Supplier Development Programme under Consolidated Project for SME development in India. Due to this the infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships taken place among ACI. The objective is to find the technical efficiency of auto cluster before (2001-02) and after the CDA (2008-09). The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from ACI and analyzing using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes (CCR) Model. The Correlation Coefficient Analysis reveals that there is significant increase in correlation coefficient and the Regression Analysis informs that for one percent increase in employment and net worth the gross output increases significantly after the CDA. The DEA gives the technical efficiency of ACI by taking employment, net worth as input variable and gross output as output variable. From the technical score and ranking of auto component manufactures, it is found that there is significant increase in technical efficiency of ACI after the CDA when compared to before CDA. The slack variables obtained clearly reveals the excess employment and net worth and no shortage of gross output. Government policy on CDA by intervention in interrelationships not only benefited Chennai Auto Cluster in general but also Chennai Auto Components Industries in particular. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.