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Chennai, India

Saxena S.,Government of Tamil Nadu | Geethalakshmi V.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Lakshmanan A.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Weather and Climate Extremes | Year: 2013

Coastal zone is exposed to various natural forces including cyclones and tsunamis, which are constantly affecting the shorelines, beaches and headlands, causing storm surges, erosion/accretion, landslides, and coastal flooding. Magnitude and risk of disasters are directly proportional to the sensitivity and inversely proportional to degree of resilience of exposed community. To mitigate the ill effects of hazards, a thorough understanding of the vulnerability causing factors and coping capabilities is required for which vulnerability analysis is essential. A study was undertaken in the most vulnerable coastal zone in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu, with a goal to draw a comprehensive vulnerability framework combining Geo-Physical-Natural factors with Socio-Economic-Institutional factors responsible for causing vulnerability at habitation levels and to construct composite vulnerability index (CVI) and dimensional indices. Analysis on changes along the shoreline using the information extracted from the satellite imageries between the years 1972 and 2011 indicated that the average net rate of shoreline change was +0.15myear-1. Of the total length of 42km studied for shoreline changes, about 40.5% of the coastline is accreting, 15.72% is medium to highly eroded and 18.23% is classified under low erosion zone. The flood hazard mapping study undertaken for a stretch of ~14km along the Cuddalore coastline for 1-in-100-year extreme flood level, including local mean sea level and global sea-level rise, indicated maximum inundation level to be 3.62m form MSL for the Cuddalore coastal region. The composite hazard line drawn on the GIS map shows that in the study area seventeen habitations (coastal settlements) are vulnerable to storm surge coastal flooding generated by one in 100 year return period storm surge (3.62m height). CVI of 17 habitations in study area was developed on a scale of 'one' to 'five' by considering nine broad dimensions of vulnerability viz., geographic, demographic, institutional, natural, social, safety infrastructure, physical, livelihood and economic, each expressed by five indicators, using a total of seventy five variables of vulnerability, with weightage of 22.20%, 13.19%, 13.34%, 13.35%, 9.20%, 6.24%,5.89%, 9.83% and 6.77% respectively, arrived through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results indicated that two habitations viz. Samiyarpettai (3.18) and C. Pudupettai (3.10) have CVI in acutely vulnerable (level 3-CVI between 3 and 4) category and rest of the 15 habitations are in the highly vulnerable (level 2-CVI between 2 and 3) category. Dimension wise vulnerability indices appear to differ considerably among different habitations. Institutional vulnerability is in a lower range owing to a better prepared coastal community after 2004 Tsunami. CVI construction enables the policy makers to devise a suitable strategy for vulnerability reduction. The habitation vulnerability mapping provides information for prioritisation of the vulnerability dimensions and is a very useful tool for developing effective policy to reduce vulnerability at habitation level. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Krushna N.S.A.,Anna University | Shiny C.,Anna University | Manokaran G.,Apollo Hospital | Elango S.,Government of Tamil Nadu | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Immune responses to recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor homolog (rBm-33) were investigated in patients with human lymphatic filariasis (microfilaremics (MF) and chronic pathology (CP)) along with endemic normals (EN). Flow cytometric analysis (24 h) revealed CD4 + T cell activation in patients (MF and CP) compared to normals (EN), with increased expression of CD69 and diminished levels of CD62L and CD127. This was associated with an elevated expression of CD154 but not CD28 and CTLA4 in CP patients. However, Bm-33-induced cytokine expression profile (IL-1β, IL-12, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10 and TGF-β) did not exhibit any significant difference between normals and patients at the same time point. Although CD4 + T cell activation was observed initially in filarial patients (24 h), lymphoproliferation studies (96 h) suggested diminished proliferation compared to normals, indicating functional inactivation in the former upon prolonged antigen exposure. This indicates that rBm-33 induces an early T cell activation in MF and CP patients followed by a decreased lymphoproliferation that might contribute to immune suppression in these individuals. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Qadri S.M.H.,Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute | Prabhakaran V.,Government of Tamil Nadu
Indian Silk | Year: 2012

India is surging ahead in production of quality silk i.e., bivoitine of high grades; movement is gradual but steady. And, here the exemplary position has been earned by Tamil Nadu. Thanks to consistent efforts made by the scientists of RSRS, Salem and CSRTI, Mysore along with the state department, and for the conviction nurtured by the Team to lead the country in bivoitine silk production. Presented here is the story how this feat could be achieved. Source


Shiny C.,Anna University | Krushna N.S.A.,Anna University | Babu S.,SAIC | Elango S.,Government of Tamil Nadu | And 2 more authors.
Microbes and Infection | Year: 2011

Wolbachia, an endosymbiont present in filarial nematodes, have been implicated in a variety of roles, including the worm development and survival. Elucidation of the role of Wolbachia in filarial nematode biology and pathogenesis has become the focus of many studies and its contribution to parasite survival or immune response is still unclear. Recombinant Wolbachia HSP60 decreases T cell activation and lymphoproliferation in filarial infected people compared to endemic controls as observed by the assessment of T cell activation markers and cytokine responses in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reduced T cell activation may be linked to T regulatory cell activity since it is associated with increased expression of CTLA4 and CD25 on CD4 + T cells in filarial infected group upon stimulation with recombinant Wolbachia HSP60. In addition, elevated interleukin-10 and TGF-β cytokines corroborate the reduced CD4 + T cell activation and interferon-γ observed upon recombinant Wolbachia HSP60 stimulation in filarial patients. Hence, these findings indicate that Wolbachia HSP60 may also contribute to the immune modulation seen in filarial patients. © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Source


Elumalai G.,Government of Tamil Nadu | Bhaskar G.B.,Tagore Engineering College | Subash R.,Tagore Engineering College
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In the developing countries, the identification of Faulty Vehicle's by the enforcing authorities within a stipulated time is a challenging task. Hit and run accident vehicles, traffic-rule violators, theft vehicles, escaping an accused in a vehicle and nonpayment of tax vehicles etc., are called as faulty vehicles. In the existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), only the vehicles are being monitored, instead of catching the faulty vehicle. In this methodology, the vehicles are controlled from the control room itself within stipulated time duration by controlling the fuel mixture. The concept involves minimization or stoppage of fuel mixture to that particular vehicle (three -wheeler Auto and four -wheeler Maruthi 800), depending upon its location (GPS) and the traffic environment; by using the specially designed electronic control unit (ECU) and with the help of a network provider (GSM). The entire concept is explained in this paper with the help of block diagram and photographs. From this investigation it's observed that the vehicle could be stopped and it can be caught by the enforcing authority for necessary action. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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