Choubisa S.L.,Government of Rajasthan
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2017
India is one of the fluoride-endemic countries where the maximum numbers of ground or drinking water sources are naturally fluoridated. In India, a total of 23, out of 36 states and union territories have drinking water contaminated with fluoride in varying concentration. In the present scenario, especially in rural India, besides the surface waters (perennial ponds, dams, rivers, etc.), bore wells and hand pumps are the principal drinking water sources for domestic animals such as cattle (Bos taurus), water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), horses (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus) and dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Out of 23 states, 17 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha (Orissa), Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, have fluoride beyond the maximum permissible limit of 1.0 or 1.5 ppm in drinking water. This situation is a great concern for the animal health because fluoride is a slow toxicant and causes chronic diverse serious health hazards or toxic effects. Despite the fact that domestic animals are the basic income sources in rural areas and possess a significant contributory role not only in the agriculture sector but also in the strengthening of economy as well as in sustainable development of the country, research work on chronic fluoride intoxication (hydrofluorosis) due to drinking of fluoridated water in domestic animals rearing in various fluoride-endemic states is not enough as compared to work done in humans. However, some interesting and excellent research works conducted on different aspects of hydrofluorosis in domesticated animals rearing in different states are briefly and critically reviewed in the present communication. Author believes that this review paper not only will be more useful for researchers to do some more advance research work on fluoride-induced toxicosis in different species of animals but will also be helpful in the making of health policy for domestic animals at state and national level for the mitigation of hydrofluorosis in India. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Gidwani L.,Government of Rajasthan |
Tiwari H.,Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur |
Bansal R.C.,Queensland University of Technology
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2013
The increasing interest to utilize wind energy as a power source prompted more researches to be dedicated to the unconventional integration of this power source into the current grid. In this paper, one avenue to achieve this efficient utilization, through the use of integrated wind energy conversion system (WECS) using doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is presented. Wind grid integration brings the problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic distortion. This paper presents an Unconventional Power Electronic Interface (UPEI) to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) and enhance power quality during disturbances. The models used in the paper includes a pitch-angled controlled wind turbine model, a DFIG model, power system model and an UPEI having controlled converters. A phase to phase fault is simulated on 132 kV bus and the measured results obtained from grid connection of the wind generation system are presented. The results have demonstrated the ability of UPEI to regulate pitch angle, VAR and to reduce THD. The proposed system increases the effectiveness of the utilization of wind energy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma P.,Government of Rajasthan
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2014
In the present investigation extraction, isolation, purification and identification of flavonoids were carried out in vivo (stem, bark, leaves, flower and fruits) and in vitro (callus) tissues of selected plant species Terminalia arjuna (family-Combretaceae). Unorganized cultures were raised and maintained by frequent subculturings on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D, using seedling as explant. TLC, Spectrophotometry and infra-red spectral studies were used for qualitative and quantitative estimation of flavonoids. Three flavonoids namely Luteolin, Kaempferol, Quercetin have been identified.
Oral azithromycin in extended dosage schedule for chronic, subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease: A probable cure in sight? Results of a controlled preliminary trial
Dogra J.,Government of Rajasthan
International Journal of General Medicine | Year: 2012
Purpose: Two mega trials have raised the question as to whether the hypothesis that infection plays a role in atherosclerosis is still relevant. This controlled preliminary trial investigated an extended dose of azithromycin in the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients and methods: Forty patients with documentary evidence of CAD were screened for immunoglobulin G titers against C. pneumoniae and grouped into either the study group (patients with positive titer, n = 32) or control group (patients with negative titer, n = 8). Cases who met inclusion criteria could not have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from every patient. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell indices, serum creatinine, and liver function tests, and repeated every 2 months. A primary event was defined as the first occurrence of death by any cause, recurrent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina. Patients in the study group received 500 mg of oral azithromycin once daily for 5 days, which was then repeated after a gap of 10 days (total of 24 courses in the 1-year trial period). The control group did not have azithromycin added to their standard CAD treatment. Results: In the study group, 30 patients completed the trial. Two patients had to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in the initial first quarter of the 1-year trial period. In the control group, one patient died during the trial, one had to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and one had percutaneous coronary intervention. Conclusion: The patients tolerated the therapy well and there was a positive correlation between azithromycin and secondary prevention of CAD. © 2012 Dogra, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Choubisa S.L.,Government of Rajasthan
Journal of environmental science & engineering | Year: 2012
Study was conducted in 17 fluoride endemic villages to find out association between the prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis with different chemical constituents of drinking waters. These villages were arranged in 7 sets, each containing 2 to 3 villages with identical mean fluoride (F) concentrations in the range 1.0 to 5.8 mg/L but having different mean values of total hardness, alkalinity and nitrate (NO3) content in drinking water sources. A close association or relationship was found between the prevalence of fluorosis and the total hardness and alkalinity of potable waters. A low prevalence of fluorosis was found at low alkalinity and at high total hardness. But no specific association was observed between the prevalence figures of fluorosis with pH and NO3 levels which is also discussed in the present communication.
Jagetiya B.,Government of Rajasthan |
Sharma A.,Government of Rajasthan
Chemosphere | Year: 2013
A greenhouse experiment was set up to investigate the ability of citric acid (CA), oxalic acid (OA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and EDTA for phytoremediation of uranium tailings by Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss]. Uranium tailings were collected from Umra mining region and mixed with 75% of garden soil which yielded a 25:75 mixture. Prepared pots were divided into four sets and treated with following different concentrations - 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5mmolkg-1 soil additions for each of the four chelators. Control pots which were not treated with chelators. Experiments were conducted in completely randomized block design with triplicates. The optimum concentrations of these chelators were found on the basis of biomass production, tolerance and accumulation potential. The data collected were expressed statistically. EDTA produced maximum growth depression whereas, minimum occurred in the case of NTA. Maximum U uptake (3.5-fold) in the roots occurred at 2.5mmol of CA, while NTA proved to be the weakest for the same purpose. Severe toxicity in the form of reduced growth and plant death was recorded at 12.5mmol of each chelator. Minimum growth inhibition produced by chelators occurred in NTA which was followed by OA, moderate in CA and maximum was traced in EDTA applications. Chelator strengthened U uptake in the present study follows the order: CA>EDTA>OA>NTA. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Suthar B.,Government of Rajasthan |
Bhargava A.,Government of Rajasthan
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2012
In the present communication, we studied the 1-D photonic quantum-well (PQW) structure for the photonic channel filter. The PQW structure consists of a defect layer in Si/air multilayered regular 1-D photonic crystal. The extension of the work shows the temperature-dependent tuning in the channel filter. © 2011 IEEE.
Choubisa S.L.,Government of Rajasthan
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014
Relative susceptibility to fluoride (F) toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in an observational survey of 2,747 mature and 887 immature domestic animals of diverse species living in areas with naturally fluoridated (>1.5 ppm F) drinking water. These animals included buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), cattle (Bos taurus), camels (Camelus dromedarius), donkeys (Equus asinus), horses (Equus caballus), goats (Capra hircus), and sheep (Ovis aries). Of these mature and immature animals, 899 (32.7 %) and 322 (36.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were stained with light to deep brownish color. On clinical examination, 31.2 % mature and 10.7 % immature animals revealed periosteal exostoses, intermittent lameness, and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of skeletal fluorosis. The maximum susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis was found in bovines (buffaloes and cattle) followed by equines (donkeys and horses), flocks (goats and sheep), and camelids (camels). The bovine calves were found to be more sensitive and highly susceptible to F toxicosis and revealed the maximum prevalence (92.2 %) of dental fluorosis. This indicates that bovine calves are less tolerant and give early sign of F poisoning (dental fluorosis) and therefore, they can be considered as bio-indicators for fluoridated water as well as for endemicity of osteo-dental fluorosis. Causes for variation in susceptibility to F toxicosis (fluorosis) in various species of domestic animal are also discussed. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.
Choubisa S.L.,Government of Rajasthan
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2013
Chronic fluorotoxicosis in the form of dental and skeletal fluorosis was observed in 443 immature and 2,155 mature domestic animals inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India. Their drinking water contained fluoride in the range between 3.1 and 6.1 ppm. These animals included cattle (Bos taurus), buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), horse (Equus caballus), donkeys (Equus asinus), dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus). Of these immature and mature animals 172 (38.8 %) and 826 (38.3 %) showed evidence of dental fluorosis with varying grades, respectively. Their incisor teeth were bilaterally and vertically or horizontally brown to deep yellowish in colour. Also present, as indication of more severe dental fluorosis, were irregular wearing and excessive abrasions of teeth, deep yellowish discoloration of exposed cementum and/or remaining enamel surface and pronounced loss of teeth supporting bone with recession of gingiva. On clinical examination 12.1 % immature and 28.4 % mature animals revealed periosteal exostoses in mandibular regions, ribs, metacarpus and metatarsus, intermittent lameness, hoop deformities and stiffness of tendons in the legs as signs of severe skeletal fluorosis. In the fluorosed animals other signs of chronic fluoride intoxication as colic, intermittent diarrhoea, excessive urination, irregular reproductive cycles, repeated abortions, sterility and still birth were seen. No significant variation in prevalence of dental fluorosis was found between mature and immature animals. However, mature animals showed relatively higher (28.4 %) prevalence of skeletal fluorosis as compared to their counterparts (12.1 %). Among these animal species, buffaloes revealed the maximum prevalence of dental (96.8 %) and skeletal (66.9 %) fluorosis and minimum of 17.02 and 8.7 %, respectively, was observed in goats. However, prevalence and severity of osteo-dental fluorosis greatly varied from species to species and between grass-eaters or grazers (cattle, buffaloes and equines) and plant-eaters or browsers (camels and flocks). Causes for variation in prevalence and severity of fluoride toxicity in different species and between animals of different feeding habits are discussed. © 2012 The National Academy of Sciences, India.
Suthar S.,Government of Rajasthan
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2010
This study compiles the impact of vermiwash on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemistry of Cyamopsis tertagonoloba and Trigonella foenum-graecum under lab conditions. A total of four experimental solutions, i.e. 100% vermiwash, 50% vermiwash, 5% urea solution and distilled water, were used in this study. The maximum germination was in 50% vermiwash, while plant growth parameters (root length, shoot length, shoot/root ratio and leaves/plant) showed the optimum results in 100% vermiwash trial. The highest level of chlorophyll in fresh leaves was in 100% vermiwash treatment. The seedlings with 100% vermiwash foliar spray showed the maximum level of total protein, total soluble sugars and starch (p < 0.05) in their tissues. Thus, results clearly suggested that vermiwash may be an ecologically safe and cost-effective alternative of synthetic plant growth promoters for sustainable farming practices. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.