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Punjab, Pakistan

Kaplas M.,Government of Punjab
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

The aim of the present research was to compare the efficacy of two powder based 3D printing technologies for rapid casting of light alloys. The technologies of ZCast process and investment casting were employed to cast aluminium A356 alloy and zinc ZA-12 alloy. The split pattern shells were printed in ZCast501 powder and used directly as mould with outside sand support in case of ZCast process. Two commercially available powders starch-based ZP14 and plaster-based ZP100 were infiltrated with two infiltrants acrylate and wax resulting in four different material systems for making investment casting patterns. A standard method was premeditated by identifying and designing the benchmark component. The proposed concept was presented in physical form by fabricating prototypes to appraise the impact of technology used on dimensional accuracy. The dimensional accuracy was acceded by assigning tolerance grades as per UNI EN 20286-1 ISO. In addition, the working suitability of castings was analysed by comparing important mechanical properties, and further, the results were supported by radiography and microstructure analysis. The feasibility of decreasing shell wall thickness for ZCast process was also checked so as to make the process more economical and fast. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited. Source

The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study identified several quality related key genes including many other genes, their interactions (quality x development) and temporal and spatial distributions. The candidate genes identified for processing quality and information on temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions would be useful for designing wheat improvement programs for processing quality either by changing their expression or development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers. Source

Agarwal A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | Banerjee A.,Government of Punjab | Banerjee U.C.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a ubiquitous complex cytosolic molybdoflavoprotein which controls the rate limiting step of purine catabolism by converting xanthine to uric acid. It is known that optimum concentrations of uric acid (UA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary for normal functioning of the body. The ability of XOR to perform detoxification reactions, and to synthesize UA and reactive oxygen species (ROS) makes it a versatile intra-and extra-cellular protective "housekeeping enzyme". It is also an important component of the innate immune system. The enzyme is a target of drugs against gout and hyperuricemia and the protein is of major interest as it is associated with ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, vascular disorders in diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, adipogenesis, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and many other disease conditions. Xanthine oxidoreductase in conjugation with antibodies has been shown to have an anti-tumor effect due to its ability to produce ROS, which in turn reduces the growth of cancer tissues. Apart from this, XOR in association with nitric oxide synthase also participates in myocardial excitation-contraction coupling. Although XOR was discovered over 100 years ago, its physiological and pathophysiological roles are still not clearly elucidated. In this review, various physiological and pathophysiological functional aspects of XOR and its association with various forms of cancer are discussed in detail. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Singh K.,Government of Punjab | Ahluwalia P.,Panjab University
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research

Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a sodium salt of glutamic acid is commonly used as flavor enhancer in Chinese, Japanese and ready to serve foods all over the World, is the inducer of oxidative stress. In the present era, MSG and alcohol is becoming a part of daily food. Concomitantly, there is a tremendous increase in the incidences of cardiovascular diseases. So, the present study was designed to elucidate the effect of MSG by evaluating the changes in oxidative stress markers in cardiac tissue of normal and alcoholic adult male mice. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into six groups of six mice each and MSG at dose levels of 0, 4, and 8 mg/g body weight was given orally for seven consecutive days (that is from 31st day to 37 th day of alcohol ingestion) to chronic alcoholic (30% ethanol/100 g body weight) adult male mice. After the dose period (38 th day), animals were fasted overnight, sacrificed by decapitation and hearts were removed for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XOD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) and its metabolizing enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Results: A significant (P < 0.001) increase was observed in LPO and XOD levels while a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the levels of SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx and GR was found in cardiac tissue of normal and alcoholic animals. Conclusion: These observations suggested that oral ingestion of MSG at dose levels of 4 mg/g body weight and above with and without alcohol increased the oxidative stress and thereby, could act as an additional factor for the initiation of atherosclerosis. Source

Sarkar S.,Indian Institute of Science | Mandal C.,Indian Institute of Science | Sangwan R.,Government of Punjab
Endocrine-Related Cancer

β-catenin plays a pivotal role in organogenesis and oncogenesis. Alterations in β-catenin expression are common in pancreatic cancer,which is an extremely aggressive malignancywith a notably poor prognosis. In this report, we analyzed the apoptotic activity of withanolide-D (witha-D), a steroidal lactone that was purified from an Indian medicinal plant, Withania somnifera, and its underlying mechanism of action. Witha-D induced apoptosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by prompting cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This lactone abrogated β-catenin signaling in these cells regardless of disease grade, mutational status, and gemcitabine sensitivity. Witha-D also upregulated E-cadherin inmost cells, thereby supporting the inversion of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, the Akt/Gsk3β kinase cascade was identified as a critical mediator of G2/M regulation and β-catenin signaling. Witha-D deactivated Akt, which failed to promote Gsk3β deactivation phosphorylation. Consequently, activated Gsk3β facilitated β-catenin destruction in pancreatic carcinoma cells. The knockdown of Chk1 and Chk2 further activated Akt and reversed the molecular signal. Taken together, the results of the current study represent the first evidence of β-catenin signal crosstalk during the G2/M phase by functionally inactivating Akt via witha-D treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, this finding suggests the potential identification of a new lead molecule in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology. Source

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