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Alam K.,University of Peshawar | Trautmann T.,German Aerospace Center | Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Subhan F.,Government of Pakistan
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014

Super dust storms occurred over the Middle East and southwest Asia on March 2012. These storms reduced the air quality over the Gulf Region, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. Airports were shut down due to poor visibility, schools were closed, and hundreds of people were hospitalized with respiratory problems. In order to better understand the effects of such dust storms we have analyzed aerosol optical and radiative properties during this event using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Aerosol Robotic Network. Maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) values occurred on the18th of March in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia, where values of 4.9, 4.4, 4.3, and 4.9 were recorded, respectively. In Oman, the Arabian Sea, and Iran, maximum AOD values occurred on the 19th of March, reaching 4.5, 5, and 5, respectively. The dust storm then spread across Pakistan, passing through Multan, Faisalabad, and Lahore where maximum AOD values of 2.1, 2.6, and 2.7, respectively, were attained on the 20th of March. The maximum aerosol volume size distributions (VSDs) in Lahore occurred on dusty days and minimum VSDs on non-dusty days. The VSD, single scattering albedo, refractive index, and asymmetry parameter values on dusty days suggested that dust aerosols were predominant over anthropogenic aerosols in these urban environments. The shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) values (on both dusty and non-dusty days) ranged between -50Wm-2 and -194Wm-2 (average: -114±40Wm-2) at the earth's surface, and between -31Wm-2 and -105Wm-2 (average: -58±25Wm-2) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The longwave aerosol ARF values ranged between +6Wm-2 and +20Wm-2 (average: +12±4Wm-2) at the earth's surface, and between +7Wm-2 and +30Wm-2 (average: +16±7Wm-2) at the TOA. Longwave radiations therefore produced significant warming, both at the TOA and at the earth's surface. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Zafar A.,Government of Pakistan
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2012

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a common but highly under-recognised condition, which is missed not only by general practitioners but also by neurologists. Computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain alone is not sufficient to diagnose this condition. Objective of this study was to explore the pattern of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) changes in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). This was a descriptive study in which 52 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with special emphasis on their MRI and MRV findings were included. The study was conducted in Neurology Unit, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients suffering from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis were included in the study. Multi-planar/multi-sequential, Tesla 1.5 MRI/MRV time of flight images were done in all cases where there was suspicion of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Out of 52 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 41 (78.84%) were female and 11 (21.15%) were male. Mean age was 37 +/- 5 years. Definite risk factors were found in 38 (73.076%) patients with pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives or puerperium being the most frequently found risk factor in 20 (73.076%) patients. Most common complaint was headache found in 41 (78.84%) patients, followed by focal neurological deficits, and altered mental status and seizures. Papilloedema was seen in 20 (38.46%) patients. The cerebral venous sinuses most frequently involved were transverse and sigmoid sinuses in 17 patients (32.69%) while superior sagittal sinus alone in 10 (19.23%) patients. Overall CT brain was normal in 30% and MRI brain in 23.07% patients; however, MRV of these patients revealed CVST. Imaging plays a primary role in the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis because the clinical picture of CVST is non-specific and highly variable. Thrombosis of cerebral venous system is readily picked-up on MRV even if it is missed by CT scan or MRI.

Shah Z.A.,University of Dundee | Shah Z.A.,Government of Pakistan
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2012

To help understand the mechanism of host discrimination during oviposition of a parasitoid wasp, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), the ultrastructure and morphology of the sense organs on the dorsal and ventral stylets of the ovipositor were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ovipositor stylets were scanned for sense organs, because only unsheathed ovipositors are used for probing, stabbing, and host discrimination. Five types of sensilla and secretary pores were identified. Based on their pattern of innervation, the surface-dome and pitted-dome sensilla were thought to have a gustatory function and, thus, are the best candidates for host-discrimination. The arrangements of dendrites of type I and type II campaniform sensilla suggested that these acted as pressure- and mechano-receptors, respectively. Coeloconic sensilla might act as thermo-hygroreceptors, whilst secretary pores might provide lubrication during the process of stabbing for oviposition. Surface-dome sensilla were the most numerous type found followed by secretary pores, pitted-dome sensilla, and coeloconic sensilla. Almost all the sensilla and secretary pores were more numerous on the dorsal than on the ventral stylets, and the maximum number of these sensilla and secretary pores occurred on the distal end of the ovipositor stylets and decreased toward the proximal end. The surface-dome sensilla and secretary pores occurred in alternate rows while the pitted-dome sensilla were scattered all over the surface of the ovipositor stylets, especially on the sides of the stylets. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Talpur A.D.,Government of Pakistan | Talpur A.D.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Ikhwanuddin M.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 108 cells mL-1. Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Shams G.,Government of Pakistan
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare the patient's acceptability of Pipelle and conventional dilatation and curettage (D&C) for endometrial sampling and to estimate the average cost of both the procedures. Methodology: This comparative study was conducted at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from March to June 2003. Patients complaining of abnormal vaginal bleeding and had endometrial sampling were included. The endometrial sample was obtained with Pipelle sampler in Outdoor Patient Department, while in case of inadequate tissue, double sampling technique with the same device was used to get appropriate sample. Patients requiring D&C were hospitalized. Patient acceptability was assessed on follow up visit by questionnaire by grading discomfort with procedure and hassle of admission to hospital. Cost of the procedure was estimated by collecting all the receipts of the expenditures. Results: Out of 50 patients, there were 39 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, 09 cases of infertility and 02 cases of postmenopausal bleeding. The histo-pathological report of 39 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding showed Proliferative phase endometrium, secretory phase endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, Endometritis, Atrophic endometrium and inadequate tissue in 12, 12, 5, 6, 2 and 2 patients respectively with both procedures. In terms of patients' acceptability, all (100%) were in favor of Pipelle. Cost of one outpatient endometrial Pipelle biopsy was Rs.500/- as compared to Rs.3200/- for D&C needing hospital stay. Conclusion: As compared to D&C, Pipelle sampling causes less discomfort and is acceptable to the patient. On average, it is more economical than conventional dilatation and curettage.

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