Government of Pakistan

Karachi, Pakistan

Government of Pakistan

Karachi, Pakistan

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Alam K.,University of Peshawar | Trautmann T.,German Aerospace Center | Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg | Subhan F.,Government of Pakistan
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2014

Super dust storms occurred over the Middle East and southwest Asia on March 2012. These storms reduced the air quality over the Gulf Region, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. Airports were shut down due to poor visibility, schools were closed, and hundreds of people were hospitalized with respiratory problems. In order to better understand the effects of such dust storms we have analyzed aerosol optical and radiative properties during this event using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Aerosol Robotic Network. Maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) values occurred on the18th of March in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia, where values of 4.9, 4.4, 4.3, and 4.9 were recorded, respectively. In Oman, the Arabian Sea, and Iran, maximum AOD values occurred on the 19th of March, reaching 4.5, 5, and 5, respectively. The dust storm then spread across Pakistan, passing through Multan, Faisalabad, and Lahore where maximum AOD values of 2.1, 2.6, and 2.7, respectively, were attained on the 20th of March. The maximum aerosol volume size distributions (VSDs) in Lahore occurred on dusty days and minimum VSDs on non-dusty days. The VSD, single scattering albedo, refractive index, and asymmetry parameter values on dusty days suggested that dust aerosols were predominant over anthropogenic aerosols in these urban environments. The shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) values (on both dusty and non-dusty days) ranged between -50Wm-2 and -194Wm-2 (average: -114±40Wm-2) at the earth's surface, and between -31Wm-2 and -105Wm-2 (average: -58±25Wm-2) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The longwave aerosol ARF values ranged between +6Wm-2 and +20Wm-2 (average: +12±4Wm-2) at the earth's surface, and between +7Wm-2 and +30Wm-2 (average: +16±7Wm-2) at the TOA. Longwave radiations therefore produced significant warming, both at the TOA and at the earth's surface. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Talpur A.D.,Government of Pakistan | Talpur A.D.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Ikhwanuddin M.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2013

The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 108 cells mL-1. Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Talpur A.D.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Talpur A.D.,Government of Pakistan | Ikhwanuddin M.,Government of Pakistan
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to determine the immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio harveyi infections in Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer fingerlings through garlic (Allium sativum) added dietary doses. Garlic was supplemented into the diets at 5. g, 10. g, 15. g and 20. g/kg feed and fed to fish daily for two weeks. Control fed without garlic added diet. Garlic-added feed led to increased survival for all treated groups and dose of garlic at 10. g/kg feed significantly improved survival to 83.35% compared with the controls (33.3%). In addition, there was a significant increase in growth, weight-gain and feed conversion in garlic-fed groups. Various haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters were studied. Erythrocytes, leucocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, lysozyme, anti-protease and bactericidal activities were enhanced following feeding with garlic. Significantly higher serum protein, albumin and globulin levels were evident in treated groups. There was reduction in serum glucose, lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol in treated groups compared to the control. The results indicate that garlic led to enhance the immunity by making L. calcarifer more resistant to infection by V. harveyi. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Nishtar S.,Heartfile | Nishtar S.,Government of Pakistan | Boerma T.,World Health Organization | Amjad S.,Heartfile | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Pakistan has undergone massive changes in its federal structure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment. To gain insights that will inform reform plans, we assessed several aspects of health-systems performance in Pakistan. Some improvements were noted in health-systems performance during the past 65 years but key health indicators lag behind those in peer countries. 7808% of the population pay out of pocket at the point of health care. The private sector provides three-quarters of the health services, and physicians outnumber nurses and midwives by a ratio of about 2:1. Complex governance challenges and underinvestment in health have hampered progress. With devolution of the health mandate, an opportunity has arisen to reform health. The federal government has constitutional responsibility of health information, interprovincial coordination, global health, and health regulation. All other health responsibilities are a provincial mandate. With appropriate policy, institutional, and legislative action within and outside the health system, the existing challenges could be overcome.


Shah Z.A.,University of Dundee | Shah Z.A.,Government of Pakistan
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2012

To help understand the mechanism of host discrimination during oviposition of a parasitoid wasp, Venturia canescens (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), the ultrastructure and morphology of the sense organs on the dorsal and ventral stylets of the ovipositor were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ovipositor stylets were scanned for sense organs, because only unsheathed ovipositors are used for probing, stabbing, and host discrimination. Five types of sensilla and secretary pores were identified. Based on their pattern of innervation, the surface-dome and pitted-dome sensilla were thought to have a gustatory function and, thus, are the best candidates for host-discrimination. The arrangements of dendrites of type I and type II campaniform sensilla suggested that these acted as pressure- and mechano-receptors, respectively. Coeloconic sensilla might act as thermo-hygroreceptors, whilst secretary pores might provide lubrication during the process of stabbing for oviposition. Surface-dome sensilla were the most numerous type found followed by secretary pores, pitted-dome sensilla, and coeloconic sensilla. Almost all the sensilla and secretary pores were more numerous on the dorsal than on the ventral stylets, and the maximum number of these sensilla and secretary pores occurred on the distal end of the ovipositor stylets and decreased toward the proximal end. The surface-dome sensilla and secretary pores occurred in alternate rows while the pitted-dome sensilla were scattered all over the surface of the ovipositor stylets, especially on the sides of the stylets. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zafar A.,Government of Pakistan
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2012

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a common but highly under-recognised condition, which is missed not only by general practitioners but also by neurologists. Computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain alone is not sufficient to diagnose this condition. Objective of this study was to explore the pattern of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) changes in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). This was a descriptive study in which 52 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with special emphasis on their MRI and MRV findings were included. The study was conducted in Neurology Unit, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients suffering from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis were included in the study. Multi-planar/multi-sequential, Tesla 1.5 MRI/MRV time of flight images were done in all cases where there was suspicion of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Out of 52 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 41 (78.84%) were female and 11 (21.15%) were male. Mean age was 37 +/- 5 years. Definite risk factors were found in 38 (73.076%) patients with pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives or puerperium being the most frequently found risk factor in 20 (73.076%) patients. Most common complaint was headache found in 41 (78.84%) patients, followed by focal neurological deficits, and altered mental status and seizures. Papilloedema was seen in 20 (38.46%) patients. The cerebral venous sinuses most frequently involved were transverse and sigmoid sinuses in 17 patients (32.69%) while superior sagittal sinus alone in 10 (19.23%) patients. Overall CT brain was normal in 30% and MRI brain in 23.07% patients; however, MRV of these patients revealed CVST. Imaging plays a primary role in the diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis because the clinical picture of CVST is non-specific and highly variable. Thrombosis of cerebral venous system is readily picked-up on MRV even if it is missed by CT scan or MRI.


Naz F.,Government of Pakistan
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2016

Objectives: To explore the socio-demographic factors of successful suicide attempts in Punjab, Pakistan. Methodology: Archival research design was used to gather data in the form of reports of successful suicide commitment were collected from “Daily Express” for ten months from September, 2014 to June, 2015. All possible information related to gender, age, marital status, causes of suicide and mode of suicide was gathered. Data in only one newspaper was included to avoid repetition of news. News with missing important demographic information was excluded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Out of total 87, more male 50(57.5%) than females 37(42.5%) committed suicide. Most victims of suicide fell in the age range between 20-29 years i.e.,26(29.9%). Mostly unmarried individuals 43(49.4%) committed suicide in comparison with the married individuals who were 33(37.9%). Most of the suicides were committed because of domestic quarrels 45(51.7%). Among different modes of committing suicide, use of poison pills (used as pesticides for wheat) were the highest 48(55.2%). Conclusion: Young males, unmarried individuals and domestic problems were the leading factors for successful suicide attempts. Use of poison pills was the commonest mode of suicide. © 2016, Postgraduate Medical Institute. All rights reserved.


Shams G.,Government of Pakistan
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare the patient's acceptability of Pipelle and conventional dilatation and curettage (D&C) for endometrial sampling and to estimate the average cost of both the procedures. Methodology: This comparative study was conducted at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from March to June 2003. Patients complaining of abnormal vaginal bleeding and had endometrial sampling were included. The endometrial sample was obtained with Pipelle sampler in Outdoor Patient Department, while in case of inadequate tissue, double sampling technique with the same device was used to get appropriate sample. Patients requiring D&C were hospitalized. Patient acceptability was assessed on follow up visit by questionnaire by grading discomfort with procedure and hassle of admission to hospital. Cost of the procedure was estimated by collecting all the receipts of the expenditures. Results: Out of 50 patients, there were 39 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, 09 cases of infertility and 02 cases of postmenopausal bleeding. The histo-pathological report of 39 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding showed Proliferative phase endometrium, secretory phase endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, Endometritis, Atrophic endometrium and inadequate tissue in 12, 12, 5, 6, 2 and 2 patients respectively with both procedures. In terms of patients' acceptability, all (100%) were in favor of Pipelle. Cost of one outpatient endometrial Pipelle biopsy was Rs.500/- as compared to Rs.3200/- for D&C needing hospital stay. Conclusion: As compared to D&C, Pipelle sampling causes less discomfort and is acceptable to the patient. On average, it is more economical than conventional dilatation and curettage.


Nishtar S.,Heartfile | Nishtar S.,Government of Pakistan | Bhutta Z.A.,Aga Khan University | Jafar T.H.,Aga Khan University | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Pakistan's enormous macroeconomic, internal, and human security challenges coexist alongside the opportunity created by a huge desire for change. With democracy taking root and a new constitutionally ushered era in state governance, The Lancet Series about Pakistan and health focuses on health as a nation-building and social-welfare agenda at a time of unprecedented social upheaval and economic hardships in the country. We call for a unified vision for the goal of universal and equitable health access. We provide recommendations for six objectives for policy and action. Higher political priority for health, increased investments, a combination of targeted and universal approaches, action in terms of the social determinants, institutionalisation of the right organisational network, and frameworks for accountability are crucial for the attainment of the health goals in Pakistan.


News Article | January 19, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

Pakistan declared that it has removed its three-year ban on Google-owned YouTube following the launch of the site's local version in the Muslim-dominated country. With this new version, the government will be able to remove and block any material it deems offensive. The YouTube ban took effect in September 2012 as a result of violent protests across major cities in Pakistan, when the film "Innocence of Muslims," which was believed to have anti-Islam sentiments, was uploaded to the video-sharing site. "On the recommendation of PTA, the Government of Pakistan has allowed access to the recently launched country version of YouTube for Internet users in Pakistan," said the Ministry of Information Technology and Telecom. The ministry added that Google created a sort of an online Web process where it can receive requests for denial of access to any offensive material. These requests can be made directly by the Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) to Google. Upon receiving a request, Google will block access to the offensive material to YouTube users in Pakistan. Pakistan regards blasphemy as a highly sensitive topic. People who are charged with blasphemy can be sentenced to death. So far, there are no records that showed a death sentence had been issued by the government. The film "Innocence of Muslims" showed the prophet Muhammad as a buffoon, which is considered a mockery and therefore blasphemous. While the White House had instructed YouTube to remove the clip on its site, the company defended its proliferation on the site while citing reasons that are based on the ideals of free speech. Within the last couple of years, Pakistan had been blocking thousands of Web pages that the government finds to be undesirable. Some activists claim that this practice of blocking sites is intended to suppress liberal or anti-government voices. YouTube, as well as parent company Google, also had a litany of protesting countries over the company's reluctance to pull down material that is deemed offensive or not in conformity with a country's set of rules and regulations. Apart from Pakistan, the video-sharing site had also been banned in Turkey, North Korea, China, and Iran, among others. Google said that the process of pulling down an offensive material will have to follow a vetting process after a review of the material has been conducted. It added that these requests by the government to remove an offensive content will have to be reported in public. Google also receives numerous takedown requests from copyright holders. "We have clear community guidelines, and when videos violate those rules, we remove them," Google said in a statement.

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