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Iqaluit, Canada

Mead E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Gittelsohn J.,Johns Hopkins University | Roache C.,Government of Nunavut | Sharma S.,University of Alberta
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Background: Changing food behaviours amongst Canadian Inuit may contribute to rising chronic disease prevalence, and research is needed to develop nutritional behaviour change programmes. The present study examined patterns of food acquisition and preparation behaviours amongst Inuit adults in Nunavut and associations with psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Methods: Developed from behavioural theories and community workshops, Adult Impact Questionnaires were conducted with adult Inuit (≥19 years) from randomly selected households in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada, to determine patterns of healthy food knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions, frequencies of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition and healthiness of preparation methods. Associations between these constructs with demographic and socioeconomic factors were analysed using multivariate linear regressions. Results: Amongst 266 participants [mean (SD) age 41.2 (13.6) years; response rates 69-93%], non-nutrient-dense foods were acquired a mean (SD) of 2.9 (2.3) times more frequently than nutrient-dense, and/or low sugar/fat foods. Participants tended to use preparation methods that add fat. Intentions to perform healthy dietary behaviours was inversely correlated with unhealthy food acquisition (β = -0.25, P < 0.001), and positively associated with healthy food acquisition (β = 0.22, P < 0.001) and healthiness of preparation methods (β = 0.15, P = 0.012). Greater healthy food knowledge and self-efficacy were associated with intentions (β = 0.21, P = 0.003 and β = 0.55, P < 0.001, respectively). Self-efficacy was associated with healthier preparation (β = 0.14, P = 0.025) and less unhealthy food acquisition (β = -0.27, P < 0.001), whilst knowledge was associated with acquiring healthy foods (β = 0.13, P = 0.035). Socioeconomic status was positively associated with healthy preparation and food acquisition behaviours. Conclusions: Interventions to improve diet in Nunavut Inuit should target healthy food intentions, knowledge and self-efficacy. Behaviour change strategies emphasising economic benefits of a healthy diet should be employed to target individuals of low socioeconomic status. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

Lieutenant William R. Hobson’s 1859 search for traces of the Franklin expedition on the west coast of King William Island resulted in several major discoveries that include an official record containing the dates of Sir John Franklin’s death, of the abandonment of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, and of the departure of the ship’s company for the Back River. Information derived from Hobson’s report appeared in McClintock’s published account of the expedition, and it has been referenced in other works, but the report itself was never published. Recent investigations of Franklin archaeological sites on the Victoria Strait coast of King William Island by the Government of Nunavut, including sites first discovered by Hobson, served as a catalyst for locating Hobson’s full descriptions of his findings. The report includes general observations on weather, ice conditions, and wildlife encountered, and his detailed descriptions of several Franklin expedition sites are potentially valuable sources of information for ongoing archaeological investigations. © The Arctic Institute of North America.

Hopping B.N.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Erber E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Mead E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Roache C.,Government of Nunavut | Sharma S.,University of Alberta
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2010

Background: Existing evidence indicates that Inuit in Arctic Canada are undergoing a lifestyle transition leading to decreased physical activity (PA) and increased body mass index (BMI). Data specific to PA and BMI amongst Inuit in Nunavut, Canada, are currently limited. The present study aimed to characterise current PA and BMI levels in a sample of Inuit adults. Methods: Inuit adults randomly selected from a cross-sectional survey of three communities in Nunavut, Canada, completed an adapted International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and an anthropometric survey. Data were analysed by gender and age group using standardised IPAQ protocol. Results: Response rates ranged from 69-93%. Two hundred and eighteen Inuit adults [180 women, 38 men; mean (standard deviation (SD)) ages 42.3 (13.0) and 42.4 (14.8) years respectively; age range 19-89 years] completed the IPAQ. All men and 97% of women allowed height and weight measurements; the remainder were self-reported. Mean (SD) BMI was 27.7 (6.3) kg/m2 for males and 30.3 (8.0) kg/m2 for females. The largest proportion of women and participants in both age groups had a BMI in the obese category; males were evenly split between the normal and obese categories. Self-reported PA was high, with most men, women and participants ≤50 years in the high category of PA. Participants >50 years were evenly split across the medium and high categories. Most participants (72%) were classified as being overweight or obese, yet reported medium or high levels of PA (89%). Conclusions: The findings obtained in the present study indicate the co-existence of high BMI and high self-reported PA amongst Inuit adults. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

Sharma S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Sharma S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Cao X.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Roache C.,Government of Nunavut | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

The aims of the present study were to (1) characterise the diets of adult Inuit; (2) highlight foods for a nutritional and lifestyle intervention programme; (3) develop a quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) to evaluate the programme and monitor changes in dietary intake in this population over time. A dietary survey using single 24-h dietary recalls was conducted among Inuit aged between 19 and 87 years in two communities in Nunavut, Canada. Eighty-seven subjects completed the recalls (response rate was approximately 73%). The mean energy intake for men and women was 9530 and 6939kJ, respectively. The intakes of dietary fibre and the majority of vitamins and minerals (especially vitamins A, D, and E, total folate and Ca) were far below the recommendations. Traditional foods contributed 40 and 42%, respectively, to protein and Fe intakes. Non-nutrient-dense store-bought foods were consumed much more frequently than the nutrient-dense traditional foods. Foods high in fat and sugar were highlighted, and will be replaced by healthier, more nutrient-dense alternatives to address the dietary inadequacies for the nutritional intervention programme. A 154-item QFFQ was developed and pilot tested in the Arctic Inuit. The present study highlighted foods to be targeted for a nutritional and lifestyle intervention programme not previously undertaken in this population. This QFFQ is culturally appropriate and specific for evaluating the effectiveness of the programme, as well as monitoring nutritional transition in this population. © 2010 The Author.

Andrew Kovesi T.,University of Ottawa | Cao Z.,McGill University | Osborne G.,Government of Nunavut | Egeland G.M.,McGill University
Journal of Asthma | Year: 2011

Background. Inuit children in Nunavut, Canada, have high rates of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) early in life. Whether this commonly results in chronic respiratory symptoms later in life is unknown. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 3-to 5-years-old Inuit children was conducted in all three regions of Nunavut, as part of the "Qanuippitali, what about us, how are we?" survey. Results. Reported chronic cough and wheezing were common in preschool Inuit children, although reported asthma diagnosed by a healthcare professional was uncommon. The presence of smokers in the home tended to be associated with severe LRTI in the first 2 years of life. Reported wheezing as well as reported bronchitis or pneumonia in the previous 12 months was significantly associated with severe LRTI in the first 2 years of life. Reported wheezing was also strongly associated with reported bronchitis or pneumonia in the past 12 months. The prevalence of chronic moist cough could not be clearly assessed, due to limitations in the questionnaire. Interpretation. Severe LRTI in the first 2 years of life was associated with ongoing respiratory morbidity in preschool Inuit children, although symptoms appeared to lessen in severity over time. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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