Collins S.A.,University of British Columbia |
Surmala P.,Government of Nunavut |
Greenberg C.,University of Manitoba |
Bathory L.W.,Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated |
And 2 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2012
Background: The northern territory Nunavut has Canada's largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and infant deaths due to infections.Methods: To determine the causes and potential risk factors of infant mortality in Nunavut, we reviewed all infant deaths (<1yr) documented by the Nunavut Chief Coroner's Office and the Nunavut Bureau of Statistics (n=117; 1999-2011). Rates were compared to published data for Canada.Results: Sudden death in infancy (SIDS/SUDI; 48%) and infection (21%) were the leading causes of infant death, with rates significantly higher than for Canada (2003-2007). Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42) and bed-sharing (n=47), 29 (69%) were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70%) were bed-sharing. Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70%) had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. CPT1A P479L homozygosity, which has been previously associated with infant mortality in Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations, was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI, infection) throughout Nunavut (OR:3.43, 95% CI:1.30-11.47).Conclusion: Unexpected infant deaths comprise the majority of infant deaths in Nunavut. Although the CPT1A P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness) are underway with local partners. © 2012 Collins et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Hayward J.,Dalhousie University |
Jamieson R.,Dalhousie University |
Boutilier L.,Environment Canada |
Goulden T.,Dalhousie University |
Lam B.,Government of Nunavut
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2014
Currently, tundra wetlands are used to treat municipal wastewater in many Arctic communities, typically following primary treatment from a wastewater stabilization pond. Inclusion of tundra wetlands as part of the municipal wastewater treatment strategy for the Canadian Arctic is an option to meet upcoming federal Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations (WSER). Water quality improvement has been demonstrated in tundra wastewater treatment wetlands; however, the mechanisms responsible for this observed treatment are not well understood. In this study, we conducted a detailed physical, hydraulic, and biogeochemical analysis of a tundra wetland receiving primary treated municipal wastewater in Coral Harbour, Nunavut. The primary objective was to gain a better understanding of the processes which contribute to water quality improvement within these types of environmental systems. Data were collected during four study periods throughout the treatment season, between mid-June 2011 and early-September 2012. Study results illustrated seasonal variability in the treatment performance and hydraulic characteristics of the wetland. Hydraulic residence times (HRTs) as short as 11h were observed during the spring freshet, and as long as 14 days in mid-summer. Short HRTs in the spring freshet suggested the observed reduction of wastewater constituents was primarily by dilution from watershed contributions. Biogeochemical data showed seasonal increases in pH and DO, which were driven by algae growth, which corresponded to increases in TSS, and decreases in E. coli and nitrogen species. During the entire treatment season, the wetland effluent met the WSER, which does not currently include Nunavut, Canada. Contaminant concentration reductions were variable over the treatment season with the minimum reductions observed during the spring freshet (92.5% of BOD5, 3.7 log of E. coli, 95.4% of TSS, 77.3% of TN, 73.7% of TAN, 46.2% of NH3-N, and 78.9% of TP). Requisites for the responsible use of a wetland for wastewater treatment in an arctic setting should include the characterization of hydrological setting to quantify how external hydrologic inputs will influence treatment performance. © 2014.
News Article | November 2, 2016
In the tiny Arctic hamlet of Igloolik, Nunavut, hunters say a mysterious sound, seemingly coming from the bottom of the sea, is driving wildlife away. According to the CBC, locals have different theories about its source, and have attributed this "ping" or "hum" to a mining company that has operated nearby, or even to sabotage by Greenpeace. Both entities denied having anything to do with the phenomenon that hunters allege has made an area once teeming with wildlife a bit more barren over the course of the summer. Although the Arctic has been increasingly opening up to mining operations, tourism, and military exercises, this pinging sound remains unexplained. Without anywhere else to turn, and with no leads on what's causing it, the Office of the Premier of Nunavut called on the Department of National Defence (DND) to investigate in October. Read More: A Loud Sound Just Shut Down a Bank's Data Center for 10 Hours "The Department of National Defence has been informed of the strange noises emanating in the Fury and Hecla Straights area, and the Canadian Armed Forces are taking the appropriate steps to actively investigate the situation," DND spokesperson Evan Koronewski wrote me in an email. "We appreciate the information provided by the Government of Nunavut and will follow up with the Premier's Office once the investigation has concluded," he added. Canada is apparently becoming the official Land of Extremely X-Files Shit, as this isn't the first mysterious noise that locals have called upon the government to investigate. Citizens of Windsor, Ontario have long been plagued by what's known as the "Windsor hum." In 2014, a public summary of an as-yet unpublished government report on that strange hum stated that its origin could not be established, but that it might be the result of industrial operations in the area. It's unclear whether DND's investigation into the Arctic "ping" will be any more fruitful, but until some answers can be found, there's going to be some pissed off hunters up in Igloolik. Get six of our favorite Motherboard stories every day by signing up for our newsletter.
Stenton D.R.,Government of Nunavut |
Keenleyside A.,Trent University |
Trepkov D.P.,Forensic Artist |
Park R.W.,University of Waterloo
Polar Record | Year: 2015
In 2013, partial skeletal remains from three members of the 1845 John Franklin expedition were recovered from an archaeological site at Erebus Bay, King William Island, Nunavut. The remains included three crania, two of which were sufficiently intact to allow craniofacial reconstructions. Identifications are not proposed for either reconstruction; however, tentative identifications are being explored through DNA analyses currently underway that include samples obtained from both crania. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015
PubMed | Consultant, Healthy Environmental, Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Government of Nunavut and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014
The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 g/kg lipids for p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and 990 g/kg lipids for -hexachlorocyclohexane (-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population.
Stenton D.R.,Government of Nunavut |
Keenleyside A.,Trent University |
Park R.W.,University of Waterloo
Arctic | Year: 2015
In 2013, a burial feature was excavated at NgLj-3, a Franklin expedition archaeological site on the Erebus Bay coast of King William Island. The feature contained 72 human bones representing a minimum of three individuals. The composition of the assemblage closely matches the description of skeletal remains of members of the Franklin expedition buried by Frederick Schwatka in 1879. Analysis suggests that the remains include those of the two men discovered in a ship’s boat in 1859 by the McClintock search expedition. © The Arctic Institute of North America.
Curren M.S.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau |
Davis K.,Healthy Environmental |
Liang C.L.,Healthy Environmental |
Adlard B.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau |
And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014
The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700. μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990. μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population. © 2014 The Authors.
News Article | February 15, 2017
KUGLUKTUK, NUNAVUT--(Marketwired - Feb. 14, 2017) - Modern public infrastructure is key to supporting the unique needs of northern communities. The governments of Canada and Nunavut are investing in green infrastructure that will improve community services and increase future investment and growth opportunities, while safeguarding the environment that northerners depend upon. Together with local residents, the Honourable Peter Taptuna, Premier of Nunavut, and Ryan Nivingalok, Mayor of Kugluktuk, today marked the official opening of three new community buildings that will improve services, provide reliable access to clean drinking water and help protect the environment. The projects include the construction of a new water treatment plant, a public works building, as well as a six-bay garage to house the community's water and wastewater trucks. These infrastructure projects will not only help reduce the community's operational costs and energy dependency, but also better support the delivery of services to the residents. "Investing in infrastructure creates jobs, strengthens the economy and gives municipalities the building blocks they need to support a high standard of living for Canadians and their families. This important investment will help ensure Kugluktuk residents have access to safe and reliable drinking water, as well as effective wastewater treatment services that will help protect their local environment." - The Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, Minister of Infrastructure and Communities "Through partnership at all levels, the Government of Nunavut is helping to build capacity in communities throughout the territory. The hamlet administration and residents of Kugluktuk should be commended for their use of resources and effective planning. What we see here today demonstrates how good ideas and teamwork help build communities." "We invested a lot of time and energy into research and planning for these projects to make the best use of funding, local contractors and other resources that were available in Kugluktuk. The benefit from this is that we have new facilities and renovated buildings that will serve our community for many years and we did it in a very cost-effective way."
Stenton D.R.,Government of Nunavut
Arctic | Year: 2014
Lieutenant William R. Hobson’s 1859 search for traces of the Franklin expedition on the west coast of King William Island resulted in several major discoveries that include an official record containing the dates of Sir John Franklin’s death, of the abandonment of HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, and of the departure of the ship’s company for the Back River. Information derived from Hobson’s report appeared in McClintock’s published account of the expedition, and it has been referenced in other works, but the report itself was never published. Recent investigations of Franklin archaeological sites on the Victoria Strait coast of King William Island by the Government of Nunavut, including sites first discovered by Hobson, served as a catalyst for locating Hobson’s full descriptions of his findings. The report includes general observations on weather, ice conditions, and wildlife encountered, and his detailed descriptions of several Franklin expedition sites are potentially valuable sources of information for ongoing archaeological investigations. © The Arctic Institute of North America.
Koren L.,University of Calgary |
Whiteside D.,University of Calgary |
Whiteside D.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Fahlman A.,University of Calgary |
And 6 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2012
Species have traditionally been defined as cortisol-dominant or corticosterone-dominant, depending on the glucocorticoid that is reported. To assess the degree of covariance versus independence between cortisol and corticosterone, 245 serum samples belonging to 219 individuals from 18 cortisol-dominant, non-domesticated species (6 mammalian orders) were compared by mass spectrometry. In these samples, which were elevated above baseline, concentration ranges were overlapping for cortisol and corticosterone although cortisol was dominant in every sample except one of 17 bighorn sheep with a corticosterone-biased cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio of 0.17. As expected, cortisol and corticosterone were strongly associated among species (r 2=0.8; species with high absolute cortisol tend to have high absolute corticosterone concentrations), with wide variation in the species-average cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio (range 7.5-49) and an even wider ratio range across individuals (0.2-341). However, only 9 out of 13 species with >7 individuals showed a positive association between cortisol and corticosterone among individuals, and repeated measures of the cortisol-to-corticosterone ratio within individuals were weakly associated (CV range 3-136%). We conclude that corticosterone, although at lower concentrations, has the potential to signal independently of cortisol, and should be included in integrated endocrine models of stress responses. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.