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Daley P.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Bajgai J.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Penney C.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Williams K.,Labrador | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are common among humans in Aboriginal communities in Canada, for unknown reasons. Methods: Cross sectional study of humans and dogs in an Aboriginal community of approximately 1200 persons. Our objectives were to measure community-based prevalence of nasal MRSA colonization among humans, use multivariable logistic regression to analyze risk factors for MRSA colonization, and perform molecular typing of Staphylococci isolated to investigate interspecies transmission. Results: 461 humans were approached for consent and 442 provided complete data. 109/442 (24.7 %, 95 % C.I. = 20.7-28.7 %) of humans were colonized with MRSA. 169/442 (38.2 %) of humans had received antibiotics in the last 12 months. Only number of rooms in the house (OR 0.86, p = 0.023) and recreational dog use (OR 7.7, p = 0.002) were significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. 95/109 (87.1 %) of MRSA strains from humans were of the same spa type (CMRSA10/USA300). 8/157 (5.1 %, 95 % C.I. = 1.7-8.5 %) of dogs were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and no dogs were colonized with MRSA. Conclusions: Human MRSA colonization in this community is very common, and a single clone is predominant, suggesting local transmission. Antibiotic use is also very common. Crowding may partially explain high colonization, but most considered risk factors including animal exposure were not predictive. Very few dogs carried human Staphylococcal strains. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Tom M.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Lye L.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Khan A.A.,Government of Newfoundland and Labrador
Proceedings, Annual Conference - Canadian Society for Civil Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the adaptation of remote sensing of snow distribution for flood forecasting in western Newfoundland's Humber Valley watershed. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Terra images were acquired over the Humber Valley watershed from October to June for the years 2000 to 2009. MODIS is an optical sensor on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. Its daily temporal data are advantageous, and the data are free and easily accessible. Daily snow cover data was extracted from the MODIS images using a snow cover algorithm in PCI Geomatica, a remote sensing and image processing software. One major obstacle to the acquisition of MODIS imagery over the Humber Valley watershed is the presence of over 50% cloud cover for 80% of the days on average from October to June every year. This was a concern for data collection: affecting the sample size of acquired data and the accuracy of the snow cover data. When cloud-cover is high there is a greater chance that it may be misclassified as snow and/or snow is misclassified as cloudcover. Degree-days for the watershed will be compared to the MODIS derived snow cover depletion curves (these data should coincide). A degree-day model that incorporates snowmelt runoff will also be evaluated. The computed flows will be compared with measured flow data at existing hydrometric stations within the watershed to assess the model's applicability. Flood forecasting in Humber Valley is important because of the large population settlements within the Humber River. Source


Moreau D.T.R.,Government of Newfoundland and Labrador
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences | Year: 2014

The commercialization of growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon for aquaculture has become a controversial public policy issue. Concerns exist over the potential ecological effects of this biotechnology should animals escape captivity. From within an ecological risk-analysis framework, science has been sought to provide decision makers with evidence upon which to base regulatory decisions pertaining to genetically modified salmon. Here I review the available empirical information on the potential ecological and genetic effects of transgenic salmon and discuss the underlying eco-evolutionary science behind the topic. I conclude that data gaps and irreducible epistemic uncertainties limit the role of scientific inference in support of ecological risk management for transgenic salmon. I argue that predictive uncertainties are pervasive in complex eco-evolutionary systems and that it behooves those involved in the risk-analysis process to accept and communicate these limitations in the interest of timely, clear, and cautious risk-management options. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. Source


Moreau D.T.R.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Moreau D.T.R.,Government of Newfoundland and Labrador | Gamperl A.K.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Fletcher G.L.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Fleming I.A.,Memorial University of Newfoundland
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Should growth hormone (GH) transgenic Atlantic salmon escape, there may be the potential for ecological and genetic impacts on wild populations. This study compared the developmental rate and respiratory metabolism of GH transgenic and non-transgenic full sibling Atlantic salmon during early ontogeny; a life history period of intense selection that may provide critical insight into the fitness consequences of escaped transgenics. Transgenesis did not affect the routine oxygen consumption of eyed embryos, newly hatched larvae or first-feeding juveniles. Moreover, the timing of early life history events was similar, with transgenic fish hatching less than one day earlier, on average, than their non-transgenic siblings. As the start of exogenous feeding neared, however, transgenic fish were somewhat developmentally behind, having more unused yolk and being slightly smaller than their non-transgenic siblings. Although such differences were found between transgenic and non-transgenic siblings, family differences were more important in explaining phenotypic variation. These findings suggest that biologically significant differences in fitness-related traits between GH transgenic and non-transgenic Atlantic salmon were less than family differences during the earliest life stages. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the ecological risk assessment of genetically modified animals. © 2014 Moreau et al. Source


Gallant G.,GG Consultants Ltd | Ludlow A.,Government of Newfoundland and Labrador | Fleet L.,Memorial University of Newfoundland
2011 14th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL 2011 - 11th International Conference Virtual University, VU'11 | Year: 2011

Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) is a province of Canada. The Government of NL appreciates the significant contributions made to our health care system by internationally educated professionals and the crucial role that nurses play in our health care system, The Department of Health and Community Services, through the office of the Provincial Chief Nurse, is involved in a number of initiatives that support the integration of Internationally Educated Nurses (IENs) into nursing practice and the community. This web-based Mentorship Module is one of these initiatives and received funding through a financial contribution from Health Canada's Internationally Educated Health Professionals Initiative (IEHP). This paper describes the instructional design process and evaluation results of a web-based module created to assist IENs as they enter practice in the Canadian health care system. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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