Government of Nepal

Kasara, Nepal

Government of Nepal

Kasara, Nepal
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After two major earthquakes and hundreds of aftershocks rocked Nepal in 2015, many remote farming communities were left completely devastated. In a country where four out of five people depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, the disasters dramatically increased the threat of food insecurity, particularly for subsistence farmers and their vulnerable families. Working in cooperation and coordination with the Government of Nepal, FAO successfully reached more than 182 000 farm households in the critical first few months with assistance that helped them resume food production, care for surviving livestock, improve family nutrition and avoid the threat of food insecurity. FAO continues to support Government-led efforts to address and coordinate food security and livelihood needs in the six districts severely affected by earthquake: Sindhupalchowk, Nuwakot, Dhading, Gorkha, Rasuwa, Dolakha. FAO is collaborating with five local NGO partners, as well as the Agriculture and Livestock Departments to help organize the repair of community seed storage facilities, provide more grain storage bags and help with the repair of small-scale irrigation infrastructure, using a community-based cash-for-work programme. When disaster strikes Subsistence farmers Jetha Tamang, 53, and his wife Kaili, 50, live in a village west of Kathmandu, where the first earthquake destroyed all but 15 of the 500 houses including theirs. “In the weeks after the earthquake, we had difficulty looking after our family,” Jetha says. “I could only produce enough food for the family to eat, and sometimes not even enough for that, so I had to find extra work.” But the family’s fortunes have improved as they were among 65 000 households to receive a mixed packet of nine varieties of vegetable seeds, including some fast-growing varieties that can be ready to eat in as little as a month. The seeds were supplied by FAO in cooperation and coordination with the Government of Nepal. Timing was critical as the seeds needed to be planted before the monsoon rains arrived. The FAO package also included feed supplements to improve the health and productivity of surviving livestock and grain storage bags to protect remaining seeds and grain. As part of this programme, FAO also successfully reached and additional 40 000 households with larger five kilogramme bags of rice seeds in time for planting. Each bag produces several months of food. Why earthquakes threaten food security Landslides also added to the disaster killing animals in the fields and destroying animal shelters. One in six cows and more than one in three chickens were killed wiping out a lifetime of savings for some families. Nepali farmers traditionally store their seeds and grains in their houses and about half of all households in the six worst affected districts lost virtually all of their stored rice, maize, wheat and millet. Sixty percent of households lost nearly all of their stored seeds. Rice seeds were particularly important for remote communities struggling to replace the seeds they lost, because there was little or no market access following the earthquake, coupled with a rush on remaining local seed supplies. The looming monsoon also posed a crucial deadline. If the staple rice crop was not planted before the rain, farmers would be forced to wait a full year for the next harvest – and be ever more reliant on food aid. If recovery starts immediately there are tangible results Farmers who received the feed supplements for livestock reported a significant increase in milk production – sometimes up to double the regular milk supply. Within months, farmers were harvesting vegetables produced with the FAO seeds, to feed their families or sell in the markets. Some crops such as off-season cauliflower, allowed farmers to earn up to four times the normal price. With the provision of new airtight grain storage bags, families are keeping their remaining food and seed stores safe from insects and other pests. To create income-generating activities in the six key districts a number of initiatives were also launched to provide material and training to women’s groups so they could build plastic tunnels for year-round vegetable production. This will enable the families to improve their nutrition and generate some additional income well into the future. When disasters strike saving lives is the immediate priority but getting communities back on their feet and food-secure without delay while strengthening their resilience to future crises is also critical.

Zare M.,International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology | Kamranzad F.,University of Tehran | Lisa M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Rajaure S.,Government of Nepal
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2017

This paper aims to determine the damage distribution and to analyze the available strong motion records of the April 25, 2015 Nepal earthquake and its eight aftershocks. For this purpose, an earthquake investigation team was dispatched to Nepal from May 6 to 11, 2015 to evaluate the damages of the epicentral region and the four affected cities containing Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Gorkha, and Pokhara. Based on the observations from the damages to the built environment, an iso-intensity map is prepared on the EMS-98 intensity scale in which the maximum intensity in the epicentral region is estimated to be about VIII. However, based on the geological and geotechnical evidences such as landslide volumes and ground fissures, the maximum intensity can be inferred about IX or X on the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) intensity scale. In addition, the available strong motion data of the 2015 Nepal mainshock and its eight large aftershocks recorded at the KATNP accelerometric station in Kathmandu were processed and analyzed. In order to investigate the probable site effects, the Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) of the horizontal north-south (N) and east-west (E) components and the average of them (Havg) were divided to the FAS of the vertical (Z) component and thus, the NZ, EZ, HavgZ spectral ratios were calculated. Based on these horizontal to vertical spectral ratios, a low-frequency peak at about 0.2–0.3 Hz (3.5–5-s period) is observed clearly in all the records. Accordingly, the repeated results might imply site amplification due to the thick alluvial deposits and the high groundwater level at the KATNP accelerometric station within the Kathmandu basin. It should be noted that all the horizontal to vertical spectral ratios of the aftershocks show a high peak at around 1.5–3 Hz, which is missed in the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio of the mainshock. On the other hand, considering the low angle of the causative fault plane, a near-source directivity effect on the fault normal direction (here, the vertical component) of the April 25, 2015 mainshock rupture may exist. Therefore, vertical to horizontal spectral ratios (ZN and ZE) were also calculated to find the vertical peak more clearly. The figures confirmed a peak at the frequency of 1.5–3 Hz in the mainshock spectra which is not repeated on the aftershock spectra and thus can probably be attributed as the pulse of directivity effect toward Kathmandu. This inferred directivity pulse can be also well distinguished on the velocity and displacement time histories of the mainshock. © 2017, Saudi Society for Geosciences. All Right Reserved.

Subedi S.R.,Kathmandu University | Poudel B.K.,Government of Nepal | Budhathoki U.,Kathmandu University | Thapa P.,Kathmandu University
International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology | Year: 2015

This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC) was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting. © 2014, International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology. All Rights Reserved.

Thapa U.K.,University of Minnesota | St. George S.,University of Minnesota | Kharal D.K.,Government of Nepal | Gaire N.P.,Tribhuvan University
Progress in Physical Geography | Year: 2017

The climate of Nepal has changed rapidly over the recent decades, but most instrumental records of weather and hydrology only extend back to the 1980s. Tree rings can provide a longer perspective on recent environmental changes, and since the early 2000s, a new round of field initiatives by international researchers and Nepali scientists have more than doubled the size of the country’s tree-ring network. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the current tree-ring width network for Nepal, and use this network to estimate changes in forest growth nation-wide during the last four centuries. Ring-width chronologies in Nepal have been developed from 11 tree species, and half of the records span at least 290 years. The Nepal tree-ring width network provides a robust estimate of annual forest growth over roughly the last four centuries, but prior to this point, our mean ring-width composite fluctuates wildly due to low sample replication. Over the last four centuries, two major events are prominent in the all-Nepal composite: (i) a prolonged and widespread growth suppression during the early 1800s; and (ii) heightened growth during the most recent decade. The early 19th century decline in tree growth coincides with two major Indonesian eruptions, and suggests that short-term disturbances related to climate extremes can exert a lasting influence on the vigor of Nepal’s forests. Growth increases since AD 2000 are mainly apparent in high-elevation fir, which may be a consequence of the observed trend towards warmer temperatures, particularly during winter. This synthesis effort should be useful to establish baselines for tree-ring data in Nepal and provide a broader context to evaluate the sensitivity or behavior of this proxy in the central Himalayas. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.

Talchabhadel R.,Government of Nepal | Talchabhadel R.,Kyoto University | Karki R.,Government of Nepal | Karki R.,University of Hamburg | Parajuli B.,Government of Nepal
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2016

An inter-comparison of precipitation data of manual and automatic precipitation gauge was carried out for four stations of Nepal for the period of 2011-2014. Manual recorded precipitation is used as reference to calculate deviation for automatic recording. This study has attempted to quantify and understand the differences in precipitation amounts between manual and automatic recording. In addition, the possible causes behind the disparity of automatic and manual observational data are also discussed. In case of selected stations, the data quality is fairly satisfactory. The daily deviation between manual recorded and 24. h aggregated automatic recorded precipitation data are calculated for only those days when both gauges are functional. In normal operation the automatic recorded precipitation is underestimated on an average of 10% compared to manual recorded precipitation. The minimum of 5. years of overlapping data still seems to be low for the developing countries like Nepal where timely maintenance, calibration, and up keeping is not possible. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Neupane M.,Government of Nepal | Thakur J.K.,Environment and Information Technology Center | Gautam A.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Dhakal A.,Kathmandu University | Pahari M.,United Nations Children Fund UNICEF
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2014

The act of constructing unprotected/unsealed wells to extract water from deep aquifers is a worrisome ongoing practice in most parts of developing countries of the globe. The paper is first of its kind in exploring sealing technology as a potential mitigation measure to prevent arsenic contamination of deep aquifers. The technology has been assessed not only as a safeguard to potential microbiological or mineralogical contamination of aquifers but also as an adaptive option in case of climate-induced disasters like drought or flood where it can serve as emergency safe drinking water source. This paper puts forward comparative findings of mini-arsenic blanket testing of 358 wells (unsealed) performed at an interval of 8 years in Nawalparasi, district of Nepal, along with the performance monitoring of eight different sealed wells ranging from 20 to 80 m deep for over a period of 7 years. The paper focuses on the construction methodology and performance evaluation of four sealed shallow wells constructed in the same district. Mini-arsenic blanket test results show 38, 37, and 25 % of bore wells with respective increasing, decreasing, and constant level of arsenic concentrations whereas the sealed wells exhibit steadiness in arsenic concentration range of particular tapped aquifers within Nepal drinking water quality standard for arsenic of 50 μg/l over a long period, even though the tapped aquifers lie intercepted in between adjacent arsenic elevated aquifers. Sealed shallow wells exhibit good aquifer seal characteristics beyond potential resultant existing positive difference to cause downward aquifer cross-contamination. The presented technology can be used and replicated in deep/multi-aquifer hydrogeology of Nepal and South Asia for extraction of water from deep and safer aquifers in rural and urban water supply systems by escaping overlying arsenic-contaminated aquifers. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Khatri T.,Government of Nepal | Nagayama T.,University of Tokyo | Su D.,University of Tokyo
IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment | Year: 2016

Corrosion at girder-ends is a major deterioration pattern of steel bridges. The severity needs to be quantified though the evaluation is not trivial. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use Local Vibration Modes (LVM). The existence of LVMs and the sensitivity of their frequencies to damage are examined. The damage severity is then quantified using a superposition method. This method calculates LVM frequencies under various damage severities and shapes using database of LVM of a limited number of fundamental damage patterns, which is prepared in advance by finite element analysis (FEA). The result is then used to evaluate damage severity from the measured LVM frequencies. Furthermore, relationship between LVM and load carrying capacity, prepared by FEA on various corrosion patterns, is used to evaluate the load carrying capacity from measured LVM frequencies. The developed methods are examined on a FE model of a steel bridge girder end.

Lingireddy S.,Fluid Hammer Consultancy Services Pvt. Ltd. | Bhatt T.R.,Government of Nepal
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2017: Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater; Urban Watershed Management; and Municipal Water Infrastructure - Selected Papers from the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2017 | Year: 2017

Traditional continuous water supply systems are designed based on certain fundamental assumptions such as controlled population growth, need based withdrawals, responsible citizenship etc. Non-adherence or violation of these assumptions would render the dream of continuous water supply a mirage despite good intentions and engineering practices. Converting distribution networks designed for intermittent supply to continuous supply can further complicate this issue. Transitioning intermittent systems to continuous water supply, especially when the water utility is not able to ensure adherence of the fundamental assumptions, require not only good hydraulic engineering solutions but also sound engineering management solutions. The transition time can be very high ranging anywhere from several months to few years. This presentation will discuss the differences between traditional continuous water supply systems, intermittent water supply systems and future continuous water supply systems transitioned from intermittent water systems, and describes the necessary hydraulic engineering solutions as well as the engineering management solutions. The hydraulic engineering solutions include design of network elements based on both demand driven and pressure dependent flow models. Engineering management solutions include pressure and flow control solutions, air management solutions, and the feedback control loop for effective transitioning from intermittent water supply to continuous water supply. © ASCE.

Poudel M.P.,Government of Nepal | Chen S.E.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Huang W.C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The adverse effect of climate change on agriculture has increased the importance of weather index insurance, particularly in developing countries. By using several econometric models, this study estimated the price and evaluated its effectiveness in rainfall index insurance for rice and wheat in Nepal. Crop yields associated with seasonal rainfall in three crop reporting districts were applied for actuarial estimation. The primary findings suggest that well designed weather index insurance is helpful to reduce the yield risk and stabilize farm income for rice, but results vary across crops and districts. The study results imply that rainfall index insurance is a promising insurance product, particularly for rice. Implementation of rainfall index insurance could increase the investment in cereal production in Nepal. © 2016, Tarbiat Modares University. All Rights reserved.

Acharya K.P.,Government of Nepal | Paudel P.K.,Nepal Academy of Science and Technology | Neupane P.R.,University of Hamburg | Kohl M.,Friends of Nature
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010-2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed. © 2016 Acharya et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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