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Kasara, Nepal

Mikota S.K.,Elephant Care International | Gairhe K.,Chitwan National Park | Giri K.,Government of Nepal | Hamilton K.,University of Minnesota | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2015

A comprehensive elephant tuberculosis (TB) survey using culture and four serological screening tests was conducted in Nepal in response to concern raised by wildlife officials that TB could threaten wild populations of elephants, rhinos, and other susceptible species. Captive elephants come into close contact with wild animals during conservation and tourism activities inside Nepal’s national parks. Private and government-owned male and female captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were included in the study. The mean reported age was 38 years (range 5–60 years). A total of 289 samples from 120 elephants were collected for mycobacterial culture. Culture samples were processed at the National Tuberculosis Centre (NTC) in Nepal and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, IA. Acid-fast organisms were observed in 11 and 21 samples processed at NTC and NVSL, respectively, and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) were isolated from six elephants. There were no isolations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. Blood samples were also collected from 115 of the elephants for serological testing using the Chembio ElephantTB STAT-PAK®, the Chembio MultiAntigen Print Immunoassay test, a multi-antigen ELISA, and an immunoblot assay. Culture and serological results were variable and required careful interpretation to develop criteria to assess TB risk. Elephants were assigned to one of four disease risk groups (high, moderate, low, and undetermined), and management recommendations for each group were made to government authorities. Serological results were prioritized in developing recommendations because of culture limitations and inconclusive culture results. This strategy was based on evidence for the early predictive value of serological tests and the urgent need expressed by wildlife authorities in Nepal to protect their captive elephants, mitigate TB at the captive-wild interface, and safeguard tourism. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Kafley H.,University of Missouri | Kafley H.,University of Oxford | Gompper M.E.,University of Missouri | Khadka M.,World Wildlife Fund | And 3 more authors.
Zoology and Ecology | Year: 2015

Small populations with restricted geographic ranges such as rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) are prone to extinction due to anthropogenic factors. The identification of factors underpinning the survival of such species is of critical importance for population persistence. We used VORTEX population viability analysis (PVA) to assess rhino population viability in Nepal. We simulated deterministic single-population models under different scenarios to assess viability of two distinct rhino populations in Nepal: a source population in Chitwan National Park and an augmented population in Bardia National Park. The impacts of poaching on the populations and the potential for rhino translocation from one population to another were assessed under the PVA framework. Population and demographic data were obtained from censuses and from published literature. The model output suggested that the Chitwan population is stable and capable of supplying at least 10 rhinos every 3 years for translocation provided poaching is restricted (≤ 15 animals per 3 years). However, the Bardia population is more vulnerable and unable to persist without supplementation even at the lowest poaching rate (2 animals per year). Supplementation of at least 10 animals every 3 years for 30 years is crucial for establishing a viable population of rhinos in Bardia. This level of supplementation can withstand the poaching rate of ≤ 2 animals per year. Our study demonstrates that poaching is the major factor determining rhino population viability in Nepal. The supplementation of the Bardia rhino population with animals from the Chitwan population and increased effort to reduce poaching are expected to enhance the viability of rhino populations in Nepal. © 2015 Nature Research Centre. Source

Poudel M.P.,Government of Nepal | Chen S.E.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Huang W.C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The adverse effect of climate change on agriculture has increased the importance of weather index insurance, particularly in developing countries. By using several econometric models, this study estimated the price and evaluated its effectiveness in rainfall index insurance for rice and wheat in Nepal. Crop yields associated with seasonal rainfall in three crop reporting districts were applied for actuarial estimation. The primary findings suggest that well designed weather index insurance is helpful to reduce the yield risk and stabilize farm income for rice, but results vary across crops and districts. The study results imply that rainfall index insurance is a promising insurance product, particularly for rice. Implementation of rainfall index insurance could increase the investment in cereal production in Nepal. © 2016, Tarbiat Modares University. All Rights reserved. Source

Neupane M.,Government of Nepal | Thakur J.K.,Environment and Information Technology Center | Gautam A.,Cologne University of Applied Sciences | Dhakal A.,Kathmandu University | Pahari M.,United Nations Children Fund UNICEF
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2014

The act of constructing unprotected/unsealed wells to extract water from deep aquifers is a worrisome ongoing practice in most parts of developing countries of the globe. The paper is first of its kind in exploring sealing technology as a potential mitigation measure to prevent arsenic contamination of deep aquifers. The technology has been assessed not only as a safeguard to potential microbiological or mineralogical contamination of aquifers but also as an adaptive option in case of climate-induced disasters like drought or flood where it can serve as emergency safe drinking water source. This paper puts forward comparative findings of mini-arsenic blanket testing of 358 wells (unsealed) performed at an interval of 8 years in Nawalparasi, district of Nepal, along with the performance monitoring of eight different sealed wells ranging from 20 to 80 m deep for over a period of 7 years. The paper focuses on the construction methodology and performance evaluation of four sealed shallow wells constructed in the same district. Mini-arsenic blanket test results show 38, 37, and 25 % of bore wells with respective increasing, decreasing, and constant level of arsenic concentrations whereas the sealed wells exhibit steadiness in arsenic concentration range of particular tapped aquifers within Nepal drinking water quality standard for arsenic of 50 μg/l over a long period, even though the tapped aquifers lie intercepted in between adjacent arsenic elevated aquifers. Sealed shallow wells exhibit good aquifer seal characteristics beyond potential resultant existing positive difference to cause downward aquifer cross-contamination. The presented technology can be used and replicated in deep/multi-aquifer hydrogeology of Nepal and South Asia for extraction of water from deep and safer aquifers in rural and urban water supply systems by escaping overlying arsenic-contaminated aquifers. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Sudmeier-Rieux K.,University of Lausanne | Gaillard J.-C.,University of Auckland | Sharma S.,Government of Nepal | Dubois J.,University of Lausanne | Jaboyedoff M.,University of Lausanne
Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management | Year: 2012

Climate change data and predictions for the Himalayas are very sparse and uncertain, characterized by a "Himalayan data gap" and difficulties in predicting changes due to topographic complexity. A few reliable studies and climate change models for Nepal predict considerable changes: shorter monsoon seasons, more intensive rainfall patterns, higher temperatures, and drought. These predictions are confirmed by farmers who claim that temperatures have been increasing for the past decade and wonder why the rains have "gone mad." The number of hazard events, notably droughts, floods, and landslides are increasing and now account for approximately 100 deaths in Nepal annually. Other effects are drinking water shortages and shifting agricultural patterns, with many communities struggling to meet basic food security before climatic conditions started changing. The aim of this paper is to examine existing gaps between current climate models and the realities of local development planning through a case study on flood risk and drinking water management for the Municipality of Dharan in Eastern Nepal. This example highlights current challenges facing local-level governments, namely, flood and landslide mitigation, providing basic amenities - especially an urgent lack of drinking water during the dry season - poor local planning capacities, and limited resources. In this context, the challenge for Nepal will be to simultaneously address increasing risks caused by hazard events alongside the omnipresent food security and drinking water issues in both urban and rural areas. Local planning is needed that integrates rural development and disaster risk reduction (DRR) with knowledge about climate change considerations. The paper concludes with a critical analysis of climate change modeling and the gap between scientific data and low-tech and low capacities of local planners to access or implement adequate adaptation measures. Recommendations include the need to bridge gaps between scientific models, the local political reality and local information needs. Copyright © 2012 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

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