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Murhekar M.V.,National Institute of Epidemiology | Dutta S.,United Nations Childrens Fund | Kapoor A.N.,Indian Council of Medical Research | Bitragunta S.,Medical and Familty Welfare | And 8 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013

Objective To estimate the proportion of time the vaccines in the cold-chain system in India are exposed to temperatures of < 0 or > 8 °C. Methods In each of 10 states, the largest district and the one most distant from the state capital were selected for study. Four boxes, each containing an electronic temperature recorder and two vials of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccine, were placed in the state or regional vaccine store for each study state. Two of these boxes were then shipped - one per facility - towards the two most peripheral health facilities where vaccine was stored in each study district. The boxes were shipped, handled and stored as if they were routine vaccine supplies. Findings In state, regional and district vaccine stores and peripheral health facilities, respectively, the temperatures in the boxes exceeded 8 °C for 14.3%, 13.2%, 8.3% and 14.7% of their combined storage times and fell below 0 °C for 1.5%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 10.5% of these times. The boxes also spent about 18% and 7% of their combined times in transit at < 0 and > 8 °C, respectively. In shake tests conducted at the end of the study, two thirds of the vaccine vials in the boxes showed evidence of freezing. Conclusion While exposure to temperatures above 8 °C occurred at every level of vaccine storage, exposure to subzero temperatures was only frequent during vaccine storage at peripheral facilities and vaccine transportation. Systematic efforts are needed to improve temperature monitoring in the cold-chain system in India.

Biran A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Jenkins M.W.,University of California at Davis | Dabrase P.,Government of Madhya Pradesh | Bhagwat I.,WaterAid
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2011

Objectives To explore and explain patterns of use of communal latrine facilities in urban poverty pockets. Methods Six poverty pockets with communal latrine facilities representing two management models (Sulabh and municipal) were selected. Sampling was random and stratified by poverty pocket population size. A seventh, community-managed facility was also included. Data were collected by exit interviews with facility users and by interviews with residents from a randomly selected representative sample of poverty pocket households, on social, economic and demographic characteristics of households, latrine ownership, defecation practices, costs of using the facility and distance from the house to the facility. A tally of facility users was kept for 1day at each facility. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling to identify determinants of communal latrine usage. Results Communal latrines differed in their facilities, conditions, management and operating characteristics, and rates of usage. Reported usage rates among non-latrine-owning households ranged from 15% to 100%. There was significant variation in wealth, occupation and household structure across the poverty pockets as well as in household latrine ownership. Households in pockets with municipal communal latrine facilities appeared poorer. Households in pockets with Sulabh-managed communal facilities were significantly more likely to own a household latrine. Determinants of communal facility usage among households without a latrine were access and convenience (distance and opening hours), facility age, cleanliness/upkeep and cost. The ratio of male to female users was 2:1 across all facilities for both adults and children. Conclusions Provision of communal facilities reduces but does not end the problem of open defecation in poverty pockets. Women appear to be relatively poorly served by communal facilities and, cost is a barrier to use by poorer households. Results suggest improving facility convenience and access and modifying fee structures could lead to increased rates of usage. Attention to possible barriers to usage at household level associated particularly with having school-age children and with pre-school childcare needs may also be warranted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PubMed | Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi, Government of Madhya Pradesh, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Médecins Sans Frontières and Family Health International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Public health action | Year: 2015

All children admitted to two nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs) during 2011-2012 in Madhya Pradesh, India.To determine 1) adherence to in-patient care and follow-up visits, 2) attainment and maintenance of target weight gain, and 3) association with the childrens demographic characteristics.A retrospective record review. The 74-day programme included 14 days of in-patient care, with subsequent home-based care and four follow-up visits to the NRC at 15-day intervals. The first three visits were part of the treatment, while the fourth was for assessment of sustained weight gain.Of the 1027 children admitted, 900 (88%) completed in-patient care. Of these, 685 (76%) attended the first three follow-up visits, 482 (70%) of whom gained >15% of their admission weight. Of these, 409 (85%) completed four visits, 314 (77%) of whom were able to sustain their weight gain. Those unable to gain >15% weight by the third visit had a significantly lower proportion of sustained weight gain at the fourth visit. Children aged 6 months had significantly higher odds (OR 4.5, 95%CI 3.1-6.2, P < 0.05) of completing in-patient care.In-patient care combined with community-based follow-up was effective in adherence to follow-up visits; however, there is still room for improvement in attaining and sustaining the target weight.

Madan S.S.,Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology | Upwanshi W A.,Government of Madhya Pradesh | Wasewar K.L.,Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

Calcium peroxide (CaO2) nanoparticles are cost-effective adsorbents to provide high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate, and easy separation. This study investigated the adsorption of α-toluic acid in aqueous solution by CaO2 nanoparticles. CaO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by surface modification technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CaO2 nanoparticles were 8–40 nm in diameter identified by TEM. The effects of various parameters on removal of α-toluic acid such as contact time, initial α-toluic acid concentration, CaO2 nanoparticles dosage, agitation speed, and temperature have been investigated. Removal efficiency of 97.7% for α-toluic acid was obtained by 0.05 g/L CaO2 nanoparticles for 13.47 g/L α-toluic acid. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Rah J.H.,United Nations Childrens Fund | Garg A.,United Nations Childrens Fund | Naidu B.R.G.,Government of Madhya Pradesh | Agrawal D.D.,Government of Madhya Pradesh | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013

Problem In India, adequately iodized salt needs to be made accessible to the most marginalized. Approach In an effort to provide adequately iodized salt to the most vulnerable, in 2009 Madhya Pradesh launched a state-wide initiative through two national flagship nutrition programmes: the Supplementary Nutrition Programme of the Integrated Child Development Services and the Midday Meal Scheme. Programme staff members were taught how to correctly store salt and monitor its iodine content. Field monitors assessed the iodine content of the salt in the common kitchens of participating schools and anganwadi centres monthly. Local setting Madhya Pradesh, a state in central India, is home to a substantial proportion of India's poor. In 2009, household coverage of adequately iodized salt in the state was nearly 90% among the richest but only about 50% among the poorest. Relevant changes Two hot meals prepared with adequately iodized salt were served daily for more than 21 days per month to approximately 89% of the 12 113 584 children aged 3 to 6 years enrolled in anganwadi centres (June 2011 to March 2012). One meal on school days was served to 78% of 5 751 979 primary-school children and to 79% of 2 704 692 secondary-school children (April 2011 to March 2012). Most of the kitchens visited in 2010 (79%) and 2011 (83%) were consistently using adequately iodized salt to prepare hot meals. Lessons learnt India has large-scale social safety net programmes for the poorest. Both national and state policies should mainstream the use of adequately iodized salt in these programmes.

Sankar K.,Wildlife Institute of India | Pabla H.S.,Government of Madhya Pradesh | Patil C.K.,Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve | Nigam P.,Wildlife Institute of India | And 5 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2013

Gaur, which became locally extinct before 1995 in Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve (BTR), Central India, is an endangered animal per Schedule - I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act (1972). A re-introduction program was therefore created to rebuild the gaur population in BTR, both to enhance the long-term survival of the species and to restore natural biodiversity. After re-introduction, the home range, habitat use and food habits of gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus) were studied in BTR, India, from January 2011 to January 2012. Nineteen gaurs (five males - three radio-collared and 14 females - nine radio-collared) were re-introduced from Kanha Tiger Reserve to Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve in January 2011. The reintroduced gaurs were monitored periodically through ground tracking and satellite GPS fixes. The mean annual group size of gaur was estimated at 7.3 ± 0.76 (SE). The overall estimated summer, monsoon and winter home ranges of gaur were 290 km2, 137 km2 and 155 km2 (Minimum Convex Polygon) respectively. The overall individual male home ranges varied from 135 to 142 km2, and overall individual female home ranges varied from 32 to 169 km2. Radio collared locations were plotted on a classified (LISS III) habitat map of Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve to evaluate the habitat use and availability in each season. Habitat preference was computed using Bonferroni confidence interval method, compositional analysis and Ivlev's index. In summer, gaur largely preferred grassland (P<0.0001), whereas in monsoon and winter, gaur preferred bamboo mixed forest (P<0.0001). Gaur avoided open mixed forest (P<0.0001) and agricultural land in all three seasons. Data on food habits were collected through opportunistic sightings. In total, gaur fed on 68 plant species. The present study has reported first-time information on ranging patterns of reintroduced gaur and their degree of preferences for different vegetation and terrain types across seasons, which will be very useful to the park administration for future conservation of this endangered species and for habitat intervention. © K. Sankar, H. S. Pabla, C. K. Patil, Parag Nigam, Qamar Qureshi, B. Navaneethan, Manas Manjrekar, Preeti S. Virkar and Krishnendu Mondal.

Yadav N.S.,Government of Madhya Pradesh | Sharma M.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

In the context of Chambal River, the water quality has generally been categorized as pristine water but due to certain unchecked anthropogenic activities, water quality is gradually on a declining trend. The riparian zones represent areas of robust physico-chemical interaction between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The present paper focuses on the plant diversity indices which will assess the pollution status of Chambal River, Madhya Pradesh (M.P), by way of analyzing the riparian vegetation in winter and summer season, 2014. The average Simpson's diversity index (SDI) and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (SWDI) was found as 0.23-0.28 and 2.22- 2.30 respectively indicating moderate health of the stretch of Chambal River. Similarly, the average richness indices i.e. Margalef's richness index (MARI) and Menhinik richness index (MERI) were found to be 0.49-0.52 and 0.085-0.11 respectively which also gives an indication of the moderate health of the river. The result also shows that diversity and richness indices increases from winter to summer thereby indicating that there is a decrease in pollution in summer than winter. The increase in pollution in winter needs to be taken care by way of appropriate corrective measures to keep the water quality of the stretch in good condition. The study indicates that the stretch is having moderate ecological health which means that water is not advisable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, bathing, aquaculture and life supporting activities.

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