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Lam C.,Government of Hong Kong
Geotechnical Testing Journal | Year: 2016

The density of slurries is an important quality-control parameter for many types of geotechnical works, such as slurry trenching, grouting, and bored piling. Although the working range of this parameter has been refined over the years in many standard specifications, surprisingly almost nothing has been done to improve the accuracy of the density-measurement technique. For density testing, almost all of the current standards specify the use of the conventional mud balance, although it has a measurement range far greater than what is actually needed for civil engineering works. To provide a scientific basis for the possible adoption of other measurement tools, this paper compares the performance of four different tools, namely, mud balance, digital density meter, aerometer, and pycnometer. From the results, it was found that the performance of the pycnometer depends on its measurement volume, and that the one with a nominal volume of 2 liters gives the best overall performance (measurement error ≤0.001 g/cm3). The accuracy of the mud balance and the aerometer has been found to be dependent on how they are read (i.e., to the original scale division or with care to a half a division) and also on the specimen. The digital density meter, although having good overall performance, cannot be used to measure fluids containing coarse soil particles because of the small diameter of the internal vibrating U-tube. The findings of this study will find applications in geotechnical works involving the use of slurries or grouts. Copyright by ASTM Int'l (all rights reserved). Source

Tang H.P.O.,Government of Hong Kong
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The Stockholm Convention (SC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) is a global treaty under the United Nation Environmental Program with the aims to protect human health and the environment from hazardous, long-lasting chemicals through a series of activities to reduce and ultimately to eliminate their release. To assess the effectiveness of these activities undertaken worldwide, the Global Monitoring Plan was established in a bid to obtain comparable monitoring data on distribution of POPs, to identify changes in concentration over time, and to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Over 10. years after the adoption of the SC, new or improved techniques have been developed to strengthen the measurement capabilities of the parties to the SC. This article reviews the literature published in 2008-12 on the analysis of 22 POPs under the SC, covering recent development in sample preparation, separation, and detection in analysis of POPs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zhan J.V.,Government of Hong Kong
Environmental and Resource Economics | Year: 2015

Rampant corruption is often observed in resource-rich countries, especially developing countries with weak political institutions. However, controversies exist regarding whether and how natural resources systematically breed corruption. With empirical evidence from China and through a subnational approach, I shed new light on the impacts of resources on corruption. By qualitative study of corruption cases, I identify the causal channels through which resources contribute to corruption, and using cross-regional and longitudinal statistical analysis on a unique dataset of corruption rates in China, I find that resource dependence significantly increases the propensity for corruption by state employees. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

Kwong Y.-H.,Government of Hong Kong
Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2015

Background. This study aimed to explain the causes of digital divide in the elderly people in Hong Kong and to provide recommendations for improvement. Methods. Official statistics and findings from other studies on digital divide were reviewed to determine the prevalence, causes, consequences, and recommendations on this issue. Results. In 2013, the personal computer use rates were 18.4% for those aged ≥65 years, 99.5% for those aged 15 to 24 years, and 74.9% for the overall mean, whereas the Internet use rates were 18% for those aged ≥65 years, 98.2% for those aged 15 to 24 years, and 74.2% for the overall mean. In 2013, the Internet use rates for those aged ≥65 years were 59% in the United States, 46% in Australia, 42% in the United Kingdom, and 18% in Hong Kong. The causes of digital divide were (1) inadequate motivation, (2) physical and material access, (3) digital skills, and (4) usage. The primary reasons for not having a personal computer included not knowing how to use computers (70.4%) and no specific application (44.3%). The reasons for seniors to access the Internet were to read online news (83%) and to send or receive emails (communication) (77.4%). Thus, providing elder-friendly websites for reading news online and a mobile messaging application for communication is recommended. Digital training courses for seniors should be made elder-friendly. Conclusion. Hong Kong government adopts a digital inclusion approach towards integrating seniors in the information society. Nonetheless, digital divide among seniors remains. © 2015, Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Press. All rights reserved. Source

Wu F.,Government of Hong Kong
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning | Year: 2013

Environmental activism and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are not limited to major cities, but have gradually taken root in provincial and local politics in China. This paper compares the development and characteristics of environmental activism in Guangdong province and Guangxi autonomous region, with the aim of shedding light on the causes of regional disparities in this field. With extensive and strong ties to peer organizations across issue areas within the province, grassroots environmental groups in Guangdong have grown as an integral part of local civil society. They have survived, through mutual-support, on a larger scale than those in Guangxi. Also, with a higher level of networking and capacity, environmental NGOs in Guangdong are more able to utilize the new opportunities offered by recent institutional reforms in social management and environmental protection in the province. The paper, thus, challenges the argument that over-emphasizes the domination of the state and points out that inter-organizational partnerships and the overall maturity of the civil society sector contribute most to the uneven development of grassroots environmental activism. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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