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Bhopal, India

Prajapati R.P.,Regional Institute of Education | Sharma A.,Government MVM
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

Spent catalysts are principally solid waste which that coming out from nitrogenous fertilizer industry, during the production of ammonia, resulting in the production of large amount of solid waste containing nickel, which is the spent or deactivated catalysts. These catalysts contain from 12-14% nickel based on the production process in fertilizer industry disposal of spent catalyst is a problem as falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste. The recovery of Nickel from spent catalyst is an important economic aspect and secondary sources, such as spent catalyst could minimzie land fill disposal and the waste of natural resources.These spent catalysts are generally supported on porous materials like alumina and silica through precipitation or impregnation processes. For extraction of nickel from spent nickel catalysts, the waste catalyst was collated from NFL Vijaipur Industry district Guna(M.R). Nickel electro-recovery from spent catalyst, lechate solution was used to determine the best operating conditions from recovery process and resutts were obtained. Source


Shrivastava P.K.,P.A. College | Jothe M.K.,P.A. College | Singh M.,Government MVM
Solar Physics | Year: 2011

Major Hα solar-flare events of high optical importance have been employed to study their heliographic distribution in longitude around the Sun for the period of 2001 to 2006. A statistical analysis was performed to obtain their relationship with halo/partial-halo CMEs and Forbush decreases (Fds) of cosmic-ray intensity. Our analysis indicates that 63% of the solar flares associated with halo CMEs and Fds occur in the western hemisphere and of 37% of such flares occur in the eastern hemisphere. Similarly, we found that nearly 60% of the solar flares associated with partial- halo CMEs and Fds occur in the western hemisphere and the rest (40%) occur in the eastern hemisphere. Finally, we conclude that the flares in association with CMEs and located in the western hemisphere of the solar disk are more effective in producing Fds. The magnitudes of Fds are observed to be higher when in association of halo CMEs. A slight excess in the eastern hemisphere is found for both the halo and partial-halo CMEs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Prajapati R.P.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT | Sharma A.,Government MVM | Tiwari D.R.,Government MVM
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

Nitrogeneous fertilizer industry generated so many spent catalysts during the manufacturing of fertilizer's. In production of ammonia and other products, different types of catalysts are used. After periodically use of the catalyst due to the poisoning effect of foreign material and impurities, which deposit on the surface of the catalyst, they will become Inactive. In such cases fresh catalysts have to be substituted and the spent catalyst will be discarded as waste material. Spent catalyst waste reduction at source can be achieved by using improved more active and more stable catalysts, regeneration and reuse of deactivated catalysts in many cycles, before the final disposal. The spent catalyst can be recycled by using them as raw materials for recovery of valuable metals and other products. Source


Prajapati R.P.,Regional Institute of Education NCERT | Sharma A.,Government MVM | Tiwari D.R.,Government MVM
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

Nitrogenous fertilizer industry generated so many spent catalysts during the manufacturing of fertilzers. Catalysts used in the fertilizers production process need to disposal off after their activities are significantly reduced. Disposal of spent catalyst is a problem as it falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste. So many chemical industries, manufacturing products like vegetable oils, pharmaceutical products, fertilizer, paints and pigments etc., are require a cheaper source of pure hydrogen. The demand for hydrogen is likely to go up a thousand fold, when the world's fossil fuel stock will be exhausted and technology must turn to hydrogen to be used as fuel. For the production of sufficient quantities of hydrogen of the requisite purity, the antique steam-iron process still remains one of the most attractions from various indigenous source of iron oxide as substitute materials for hydrogen production. Activity and production behaviour of catalyst was observed by magnetic data which indicated that sintered haematite and spent ammonia catalyst are unsuitable for production of hydrogen, but gives better yield of hydrogen. Source

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