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Choubisa S.L.,Government Meera Girls College | Choubisa L.,Shri Harideo Joshi Government Hospital | Choubisa D.,Surendra Dental College and Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering | Year: 2010

An association between the incidence of osteo-dental fluorosis with age and sex was studied in 18621 residents of 73 villages of two tribal districts, Dungarpur and Udaipur of Rajasthan (India). The mean fluoride (F) concentration in drinking water sources of these villages varied from 1.0 to 6.1 mg/L. Out of 11205 individuals of Dungarpur and 7416 of Udaipur districts, 8090 (72.1%) and 2914 (39.2%) exhibited evidence of dental fluorosis respectively. The maximum incidence of dental fluorosis was encountered in the age group of 13-20 years and minimum in the age group of 5 to 12 years in both the districts. Regarding the incidence of skeletal fluorosis, 21 years of age revealed 27.6% in Dungarpur and 12.0% in Udaipur. Whereas 44 years showed maximum incidence of skeletal fluorosis, its minimum incidence was found in the age group of 21-28 years. Severity of fluorosis could be associated with the advancing of age and F concentration. Moreover, males showed relatively a higher incidence of dental and skeletal fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Chi square test revealed the association between the incidence of fluorosis with that of age and sex was non-significant except for dental fluorosis in Dungarpur district (p<0.05). Those villages having almost same F level, showed a variable incidence of fluorosis because of frequency of F intake and duration of F exposure besides other determinants.


Choubisa S.L.,Government Meera Girls College
Fluoride | Year: 2010

Chronic fluoride (F) intoxication in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed in 23 domestic equus animals, 9 to 23 years old, including 14 horses (Equus caballus), and 9 donkeys (E. asinus) living in F endemic areas of Dungarpur district, Rajasthan, India. The mean F concentration in the drinking water in these areas ranged from 1.4 to 3.3 ppm. Eleven (78.7%) of these horses and all nine donkeys were afflicted with mild to severe dental fluorosis. Their incisor teeth were brown to black-yellowish in color. Also present as indications of more severe chronic F intoxication were irregular wearing and excessive abrasions of the teeth, deep dark-yellowish discoloration of exposed cementum and/or remaining enamel surface, and pronounced loss of tooth-supporting alveolar bone with recession of gingiva. Excessive hypoplasia and light brown-yellowish pigmentation on the enamel surface of incisors were also observed in 2 foals below the age of 2 months. Among the mature animals, the following manifestations of skeletal fluorosis were present: periosteal exostoses in mandibular regions, ribs, metacarpus, and metatarsus, intermittent lameness, hoof deformities, and hardness of tendons in the legs. Other signs of F intoxication included colic, diarrhoea, retention of urine, repeated abortions, and sterility were noted. This evidaence of osteo-dental fluorosis in domestic horses and donkeys is reported for the first time in India, and this condition in donkeys is reported for the first time anywhere. Copyright © 2010 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc.


Choubisa S.L.,Government Meera Girls College
Fluoride | Year: 2010

Natural occurrence of fluorosis was observed in a survey of 18 domesticated dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) living in fluoride (F) endemic areas of the Dungarpur district, Rajasthan, India. Among these camels, 15 were mature (up to 12 years old), and 3 were immature or calves (below age 3). The mean F concentration in the drinking water of these areas ranged between 1.4 and 3.3 ppm. Eight (44.4%) of these camels were afflicted with mild to severe dental fluorosis. Front (incisors) and upper cheek teeth were light brown to deep yellow in color. Irregular wearing of teeth was found, however, only with severe dental fluorosis. Three (16.7%) of the mature camels also showed periosteal exostoses, moderate intermittent lameness, and hardening of tendons in the legs as pathognomonic signs of skeletal fluorosis. In these camels colic was common, and abortions, irregular estrus cycles, and stillbirths were also noted in female camels (camela). However, the severity of F toxicity in camels was found less in comparison with other domestic animals of same F endemic areas. To the best of my knowledge, endemic chronic F intoxication in camels in the form of dental and skeletal fluorosis has not been reported previously. © 2010 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc.


Susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed among 435 immature herbivorous domestic animals living in areas with less than 1.5 ppm fluoride in the drinking water. These animals included 78 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 89 cattle (Bos taurus), 30 donkeys (Equus asinus), 21 horses (Equus caballus), 23 camels (Camelus dromedarius), 96 goats (Capra hircus), and 92 sheep (Ovis aries). Except for the bovines and equines, none of the other animals appeared to have dental fluorosis. The highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was found in calves of buffaloes (52.56%), followed by calves of cattle (49.44%), donkeys (16.67%), and horses (14.29%). Thus the teeth of bovines were the most severely affected, and moderate lameness and stiffness in hind legs, wasting of body muscles, and bony exostoses as pathognomic signs of osteal or skeletal fluorosis were also found only in the immature cattle and buffaloes. The prevalence rate of these conditions among these animals was 8.99% and 10.26%, respectively. Other signs of chronic fluoride intoxication including colic, intermittent diarrhoea, and excessive urination were also seen. In the absence of airborne F contamination, the restriction of dental and skeletal fluorosis to the immature bovines and equines appears to be related primarily to their greater need to drink water containing even a low-level F compared to the much smaller need for water intake by the immature camels, goats, and sheep. © 2013 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc.


Choubisa S.L.,Government Meera Girls College | Mishra G.V.,Shri Bhogilal Pandya Government College | Sheikh Z.,Government Meera Girls College | Bhardwaj B.,Regional Animal Disease Diagnostic Center | And 2 more authors.
Fluoride | Year: 2011

Toxic effects of chronic fluoride (F) exposure in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis were observed in domestic ruminants in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. These animals included cattle (Bos taurus), buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), camels (Camelus dromedarius), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) inhabiting areas having about the same mean 1.5-1.7 ppm F concentration in the drinking water. Evidence of osteo-dental fluorosis was present mostly in the mature animals but varied widely, with the highest prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in mature ruminants being 55.9% and 48.3%, respectively, among 288 buffaloes, followed by 48.0% and 39.8% in 392 cattle, 10.7% and 8.4% in 356 goats, 7.3% and 5.6% in 248 sheep, and 5.3% and 5.3% in 38 camels. Among immature ruminants, osteo-dental fluorosis was not observed among 34 goats, 28 sheep, and 12 camels. However, among 43 immature cattle and 37 buffalo calves, the dental and skeletal fluorosis rates were 51.1% and 18.6% and 62.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Such variations of F toxicity in these ruminants may be due to differences in F exposure and ameliorating factors, such as differences in the levels of calcium, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and other protective nutrients found naturally in their food. Additional factors causing variation in fluorotoxicosis may also be involved. © 2011 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc.

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