MacNeil C.,Government Laboratory |
Dick J.T.A.,Queens University of Belfast |
Platvoet D.,University of Amsterdam |
Briffa M.,University of Plymouth
Journal of the North American Benthological Society | Year: 2011
Invasive species may threaten the fundamental role played by native macroinvertebrate shredders in determining energy flow and the trophic dynamics of freshwater ecosystems. Functionally, amphipods have long been regarded as mainly shredders, but they are increasingly recognized as major predators of other macroinvertebrate taxa. Furthermore, intraguild predation (IGP) between native and invasive amphipods underlies many species displacements. We used laboratory mesocosms to investigate what might happen to shredders and leaf-litter processing in water bodies invaded by the highly predatory Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus, which is spreading rapidly throughout Europe and may soon invade the North American Great Lakes. The leaf-shredding efficiency of D. villosus was significantly lower than that of 3 Gammarus species (2 native and 1 invasive) that D. villosus has either already displaced or may be currently displacing in The Netherlands. In addition, D. villosus was a major predator of all of these native and invasive amphipod shredders and of a common isopod shredder Asellus aquaticus. Leaf processing in Gammarus and Asellus mesocosms declined rapidly in the presence of D. villosus and ceased altogether within 4 d because by then, all potential shredders had been killed and consumed. Furthermore, the shredding efficiency of surviving amphipods and isopods declined significantly within 2 d of the release of D. villosus, a result indicating that predator-avoidance behavior may override leaf processing. We discuss the implications of these direct and indirect effects of D. villosus invasions and species displacements on community structure and litter processing in aquatic ecosystems. © 2011 The North American Benthological Society.
Butler P.G.,Bangor University |
Richardson C.A.,Bangor University |
Scourse J.D.,Bangor University |
Wanamaker A.D.,Iowa State University |
And 2 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2010
We demonstrate here that the growth increment variability in the shell of the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica can be interpreted as an indicator of marine environmental change in the climatically important North Atlantic shelf seas. Multi-centennial (up to 489-year) chronologies were constructed using five detrending techniques and their characteristics compared. The strength of the common environmental signal expressed in the chronologies was found to be fully comparable with equivalent statistics for tree-ring chronologies. The negative exponential function using truncated increment-width series from which the first thirty years have been removed was chosen as the optimal detrending technique. Chronology indices were compared with the Central England Temperature record and with seawater temperature records from stations close to the study site in the Irish Sea. Statistically significant correlations were found between the chronology indices and (a) mean air temperature for the 14-month period beginning in the January preceding the year of growth, (b) mean seawater temperatures for February-October in the year preceding the year of growth (c) late summer and autumn air temperatures and sea surface temperatures for the year of growth and (d) the timing of the autumn decline in SST. Changes through time in the correlations with air and seawater temperatures and changes towards a deeper water origin for the shells in the chronology were interpreted as an indication that shell growth may respond to stratification dynamics. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Barroso T.R.G.,University of Minho |
Barroso T.R.G.,Government Laboratory |
Barroso T.R.G.,International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory |
Martins V.C.,International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nano Research | Year: 2015
Tuberculosis is still a major global health concern, causing the estimated death of 1.5 million people per year and being associated with high morbidity. The development of point-of-care diagnostic tools for tuberculosis is mandatory, especially because the fast and accurate detection of the slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the conventional diagnostic tests is difficult. The objective of this work was to develop the first steps to achieve a portable method for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, by a sandwich-immunoassay combined with magnetoresistive biochip technology. With the purpose of conjugating 250 nm streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles with anti- M. tuberculosis biotinylated antibodies, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin was used as a surrogate for M. tuberculosis bacteria. After magnetic capture, target bacteria were brought in contact with the surface of the magnetoresistive biochip previously functionalized with a secondary anti-M. tuberculosis antibody. Magnetically labeled cells were detected by an array of spin-valve sensors, which change their electrical resistance in the presence of the fringe field of the magnetic particles. Optimization studies on the efficiency of the magnetic capture and further recognition of the bacteria by the secondary antibody on the biochip surface were conducted. The results on the magnetoresistive biochip showed a clear difference in the signal between specific and control (nonspecific) sensors, suggesting the usefulness of this technique as a potential biorecognition tool for the development of a point-of-care diagnostic method for tuberculosis. © (2016) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Weinberger M.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute |
Sampaio-Marques B.,University of Minho |
Sampaio-Marques B.,Government Laboratory |
Ludovico P.,University of Minho |
And 2 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2013
In many organisms, attenuation of growth signaling by caloric restriction or mutational inactivation of growth signaling pathways extends lifespan and protects against cancer and other age-related diseases. The focus of many efforts to understand these effects has been on the induction of oxidative stress defenses that inhibit cellular senescence and cell death. Here we show that in the model organism S. cerevisiae, growth signaling induces entry of cells in stationary phase into S phase in parallel with loss of reproductive capacity, which is enhanced by elevated concentrations of glucose. Overexpression of RNR1 encoding a ribonucleotide reductase subunit required for the synthesis of deoxynucleotide triphosphates and DNA replication suppresses the accelerated loss of reproductive capacity of cells cultured in high glucose. The reduced reproductive capacity of these cells is also suppressed by excess threonine, which buffers dNTP pools when ribonucleotide reductase activity is limiting. Caloric restriction or inactivation of the AKT homolog Sch9p inhibits senescence and death in stationary phase cells caused by the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea or by inactivation of the DNA replication and repair proteins Sgs1p or Rad27p. Inhibition of DNA replication stress represents a novel mechanism by which caloric restriction promotes longevity in S. cerevisiae. A similar mechanism may promote longevity and inhibit cancer and other age-related diseases in humans. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.