Jayasumana C.,Rajarata University |
Paranagama P.,University of Kelaniya |
Agampodi S.,Rajarata University |
Wijewardane C.,Government Hospital |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2015
Background: The chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) among paddy farmers in was first reported in 1994 and has now become most important public health issue in dry zone of Sri Lanka. The objective was to identify risk factors associated with the epidemic in an area with high prevalence. Methods: A case control study was carried out in Padavi-Sripura hospital in Trincomalee district. CKDu patients were defined using health ministry criteria. All confirmed cases (N∈=∈125) fulfilling the entry criteria were recruited to the study. Control selection (N∈=∈180) was done from people visiting the hospital for CKDu screening. Socio-demographic and data related to usage of applying pesticides and fertilizers were studied. Drinking water was also analyzed using ICP-MS and ELISA to determine the levels of metals and glyphosate. Results: Majority of patients were farmers (N∈=∈107, 85.6%) and were educated up to 'Ordinary Level' (N∈=∈92, 73.6%). We specifically analyzed for the effect modification of, farming by sex, which showed a significantly higher risk for male farmers with OR 4.69 (95% CI 1.06-20.69) in comparison to their female counterparts. In the multivariable analysis the highest risk for CKDu was observed among participants who drank well water (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.12-5.70) and had history of drinking water from an abandoned well (OR 5.43, 95% CI 2.88-10.26) and spray glyphosate (OR 5.12, 95% CI 2.33-11.26) as a pesticide. Water analysis showed significantly higher amount of hardness, electrical conductivity and glyphosate levels in abandoned wells. In addition Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Ti, V and Sr were high in abandoned wells. Surface water from reservoirs in the endemic area also showed contamination with glyphosate but at a much lower level. Glyphosate was not seen in water samples in the Colombo district. Conclusion: The current study strongly favors the hypothesis that CKDu epidemic among farmers in dry zone of Sri Lanka is associated with, history of drinking water from a well that was abandoned. In addition, it is associated with spraying glyphosate and other pesticides in paddy fields. Farmers do not use personnel protective equipments and wears scanty clothing due to heat when spraying pesticides. © 2015 Jayasumana et al.; licensee BioMed Central.
Anbarasu K.,Government Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of nilavembu kudineer choornam (EENKC) in inflammation, pain and fever using animal models to support its actions. Methods: Acute toxicity study of EENKC was performed in mice to fix the effective dose. The antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of EENKC was evaluated in brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats and acetic-acid induced writhing in mice model. Results: Acute toxicity revealed that EENKC didn't show death and toxic signs up to 2 000 mg/kg. In brewer's yeast induced pyrexia and carrageenan-induced inflammation EENKC at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited fever and inflammation significantly (P<0.01 and <0.05) compared to control animals. In mice, the number of writhing induced by acetic-acid was significantly (P<0.01) reduced after treatment with both the dose of EENKC than control animals. EENKC 200 mg/kg inhibits inflammation higher level in carrageenan-induced paw edema, but there is no significant difference when compared to indomethacin 10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The present findings revealed that EENKC possesses antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity which supports nilavembu kudineer choornam efficacy in chikungunya fever. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.
PubMed | Government Hospital and Bapuji Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2017
Complete cleaning and shaping of root canal system is of paramount importance to achieve a successful root canal treatment. There are various rotary Ni-Ti systems available in the market to achieve mechanical goal of root canal preparation. But aggressive preparation of root canal with such systems would result in canal transportation and excess root dentin removal that would be one of the major reasons to decide the prognosis of root canal treated tooth.The present study was conducted to compare the root canal preparation in terms of canal transportation and volumetric changes in the root canal dentin among three Ni-Ti file systems, namely Mtwo, ProTaper (PT) and ProTaper NEXT (PTN) file system, using Computed Tomography (CT).A total of 45 mesiobuccal root canals of extracted first molar teeth with completely formed root apices and angle of curvature ranging between 10- 35 were selected. These teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups containing 15 teeth each, based on rotary system used. Group-I: Mtwo files, Group-II: PT files and Group-III: PTN files. Pre-instrumentation CT images were obtained at three cross-sectional planes - 3mm, 7mm and 11mm from apical end of the root. Similarly, post-instrumentation images were obtained. Shortest distance from the edge of the canal to the periphery of the root was analyzed by using Analysis of Variance.All three file systems tested in the present study presented similar behaviour with respect to the root canal transportation. Lesser canal transportation was recorded in Mtwo. But no statistically significant difference was seen in terms of canal transportation and volume of dentin removed between all three rotary systems (p>0.05).Mtwo, PT and PTN rotary systems have similar behaviour with respect to canal transportation and volume of dentin removed.
Mago V.,Government Hospital |
Mago V.,Medical College Campus
Indian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Psychiatric case reports of male genital self-mutilation (GSM) in the literature are rare and mostly anecdotal. Most of them are connected with personality disorders (Goldfield and Glick, 1970; Wise et al., 1989). In men, psychosis is an important cause for GSM, causing up to 80% of automutilations.
Kumar K.J.,JSS University |
Asha N.,Government Hospital |
Murthy D.S.,JSS University |
Sujatha M.S.,JSS University |
Manjunath V.G.,JSS University
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2013
Background: Anemia has been a very important nutritional disorder in the world. India has reported high prevalence of anemia in pregnancy. Most of the articles have reported an adverse pregnancy outcome related to anemia. Of late, reports are emerging suggesting anemia could be indeed beneficial. Apart from that, there was no consistency in the timing of hemoglobin considered for analysis. Hence, we designed an observational study to look into these aspects. Methods: 1000 mothers admitted for delivery were recruited and their hemoglobin was measured. Hemoglobin in previous trimesters was noted from their antenatal record. We followed up these mothers till delivery and looked into the gestation and birth weight of the babies. Descriptive statistics was used for baseline characteristics. Comparison of means was done using Student's t-test. Qualitative variables were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results: More than 50% of the mothers were anemic at some point of time during their pregnancy and 39% of the mothers were anemic throughout. Mean birth weight of babies born to anemic mothers was marginally lower compared to that of babies born to nonanemic mothers. This difference was statistically significant. There was 6.5% increase in the incidence of low birth weight babies and 11.5% increase in preterm deliveries in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.
Sezen G.,Duzce University |
Demiraran Y.,Duzce University |
Karagoz I.,Duzce University |
Kucuk A.,Government Hospital
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2014
Caudal block is the regional anesthetic technique that is used most frequently in pediatric surgery and bupivacaine and levobupivacaine are widely utilized in this technique. Opioid drugs have been added to local anesthetic solutions to prolong duration of analgesia but ideal combination were not found. We compared the postoperative analgesic efficacy of equal concentrations of bupivacaine or levobupivacaine plus tramadol in pediatric patients. Sixty eight children aged 2 to 7 years who were undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphies or orchidopexies received bupivacaine 0.25% plus tramadol 2 mg/kg (1 ml/kg) (BT group) or levobupivacaine 0.25% plus tramadol 2 mg/kg (1 ml/kg) (LT group) by the caudal route after laryngeal mask anesthesia. The primary outcome of the study was to compare the duration and quality of postoperative analgesia. The postoperative pain relief was evaluated by the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. In addition, the time of first analgesic requirement was noted. The CHIPPS scores were not statistically different between the groups. The duration of analgesia and requirements for rescue analgesia was similar. Urinary retention was observed more often in the BT group. There were no significant differences between groups for arterial pressures and heart rate values after caudal block and during the operation. Caudal bupivacaine plus tramadol and levobupivacaine plus tramadol have similar postoperative analgesic efficacy. But the use of bupivacaine plus tramadol may cause a greater frequency of urinary retention.
PubMed | Professor and Head, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Government Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016
The treatment approaches for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) include single management with surgery, radiotherapy, along with chemotherapy or various combinations of these modalities. The estimation of radio sensitivity of individual tumours is essential for planning the optimum radiation schedule for each patient. Assessment of radiation induced histo morphological changes in the nucleus is a known marker of radiosensitivity.The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between nuclear changes with radiation dose and to investigate the prospect of utilizing them as an assay to predict tumour response to radiotherapy in oral cancers.The present study included 50 patients (age range of 30-65yrs) with histopathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa and being treated by radiotherapy alone with a radiation dose schedule of 4, 14, 24 and 60 Gy respectively at 2(nd), 7(th), 12(th) and 30(th) day. From the included patients, smear of the buccal mucosa was collected and was air dried and fixed with methanol. The Nuclear changes of Micronucleus (MN), Nuclear Budding (NB) and Multinucleation (MNU) were evaluated under the bright field microscopy after staining with Giemsa and May-Grunwalds stain.Out of the 50, 37(74%) were males and 13(26%) were females (Ratio 3:1). The mean percentage increase of MN and MNU were found to be statistically significant (p=0.001) when compared with pre-treatment day. Similar findings were seen with NB, except between pretreatment and after 14 Gy (p-0.110). In the present study the measurement of relative increment index done in respect to all nuclear abnormalities show a sustained increase with increasing dosage of radiation.The present study, was undertaken to explore the possibility of establishing a relationship between the frequencies of nuclear abnormalities in patients with oral cancer with applied dosage and duration of radiotherapy. The progressive increase in Micronucleus and Multinucleation indices with increasing dose of radiation proves that these parameters can be used as indicators for assessing the response of tumour for radiotherapy. These parameters can be used as prognostic indicator in oral carcinoma cases undergoing radiotherapy.
Ozkaya E.,Bezmialem Foundation University |
Akduman H.,Government Hospital |
Erenberk U.,Bezmialem Foundation University |
Demir A.,Bezmialem Foundation University |
Dundaroz M.R.,Bezmialem Foundation University
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy | Year: 2013
Background: Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of several diseases including allergic rhinitis (AR). In children with AR an antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase (PON1) has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma PON1 activity and plasma total oxidant status (TOS), which are in the form of plasma reactive oxidants, and their association with severity of disease in house-mite-sensitive children with AR. Methods: This study included 66 children with persistent AR and 40 healthy controls aged between 7 and 12 years old. Plasma PON1, TOS, and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) were measured. The nasal symptom scores and body mass index were evaluated at the time of blood collection. Results: Mean serum PON1 levels were significantly lower and, TOS levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.002, respectively). A significant negative correlation was observed between serum levels of PON1 and nasal symptom scores. However, serum levels of TOS were correlated with nasal symptom scores positively. There were no correlations between levels of total IgE and levels of PON1 and TOS levels. Conclusion: Plasma PON1 and TOS levels may serve as predictors of disease severity in children with AR and both of them appear to be attractive candidates for modulating inflammation in AR. Copyright © 2013, OceanSide Publications, Inc., U.S.A.
Kalayci O.,Government Hospital |
Bozdag Z.,Government Hospital |
Sonmezgoz F.,Government Hospital |
Sahin N.,Government Hospital
Journal of Clinical Imaging Science | Year: 2013
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm and is usually associated with long standing renal stone disease. This tumor is aggressive in nature and usually has a poor prognosis. We report a case who presented with sudden significant weight loss. During the radiologic investigation, a renal mass and staghorn calculi were detected in the right kidney. The patient subsequently underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological diagnosis was SCC of renal pelvis with extensive infiltration in to the renal parenchyma. The radiologic imaging features and histopathologic findings of this rare tumor are discussed in this report.
Sahin M.,Government Hospital |
Sahin Z.A.,Kafkas University
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries | Year: 2015
In women, it is clinically difficult to measure the sexual functions. Partner’s sexual performance, quality of the relationship, cultural-ethnic, educational and socio-economic status of the patient, psychological changes, chronic diseases such as diabetes and its complications affect the sexual functions. This study was conducted in order to determine the sexual dysfunction (SD) and sexual quality of life of women with type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted at nine family health centers located in the city center of Kars. We used a questionnaire for data collection, and the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female (SQLQ-F) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) were used as the data collection tool. Sexual dysfunction and sexual quality of life of women with type 2 diabetes. The mean total FSFI was 67.36 ± 10.25 and the mean score for sexual desire was 3.28 ± 2.58, arousal 8.42 ± 4.33, lubrication 12.57 ± 4.89, orgasm 7.25 ± 3.52, satisfaction 9.06 ± 2.18, and pain 9.28 ± 4.45. The most common problem was sexual desire (3.28 ± 2.58), while the least common one was lubrication (12.57 ± 4.89). The mean total SQLQ-F score was 38.56 ± 10.89 which is considered to indicate low. Results showed that as the level of sexual quality of life increased, the sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and total FSFI increased and a statistically positive significant difference between SD. Sexual quality of life level and pain, increased, indicating a statistically negative significant difference between SD and sexual quality of life level. © 2015, Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India.