The Government College University, Lahore ; abbreviated as GCU), is a public university located in the downtown area of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan as well as one of the oldest institution of higher learning in the Muslim world. Initially established as Government College Lahore, it was granted university status by the Government of Pakistan in 2002; the word college is retained in its title for preserving its historical roots.The GCU offers wide range of programs for undergraduate, post-graduate, and doctoral studies with a strong emphasis on science and arts. Its departments of physics and mathematics holds an international prestige and retains distinguish image for world-class research and development in the country as well as in the world. As of current, the GCU has four faculties within which there are 29 academic departments; there are four research institutes associated with the GCU.The GCU secured its second position in the "medium category" by the HEC in 2013. In addition, the GCU has the highest graduation rate in the country, with an average of 95.5% annually. Alumni of the GCU are called Ravians which is derived word from the name of the student magazine "Ravi", published by the administration of the college; the magazine name is inspired by the Ravi River. The GCU is noted for its historical roots and attracted notable scholars such as Leitner, Salam and philosopher Iqbal to studied and became alumnus of the GCU. Wikipedia.
Maqsood S.,United Arab Emirates University |
Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University |
Abushelaibi A.,United Arab Emirates University |
Alam A.,Government College University Lahore
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2014
Lipid oxidation is the principal cause of quality loss in seafood, which is known to contain high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Such quality deterioration, associated with the development of off-flavor as well as lowering of nutritive value, can be retarded by incorporation of additives having antioxidative properties. The use of synthetic antioxidants has long been practiced in retarding lipid oxidation. However, due to the potential health concerns of synthetic antioxidants, polyphenolic compounds, which are found in different plants and their manufactured by-products, have been used as an alternative natural antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in different seafood systems. Both pure phenolic compounds and crude plant phenolic extracts have been successfully used in delaying oxidation in fish muscle, fish oil, and fish oil-in-water emulsions. This article reviews in detail the phenolic antioxidants and their natural sources as well as focuses on the role of pure phenolic compounds and crude plant phenolic extracts on the prevention of lipid oxidation in different seafood systems. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Khan F.M.,University of Heidelberg |
Khan F.M.,Government College University Lahore |
Just A.,University of Heidelberg |
Merritt D.,Rochester Institute of Technology
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011
In spherical galaxies, binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have difficulty reaching sub-parsec separations due to depletion of stars on orbits that intersect the massive binary - the "final parsec problem." Galaxies that form via major mergers are substantially non-spherical, and it has been argued that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxies might provide stars to the massive binary at a high enough rate to avoid stalling. Here we test that idea by carrying out fully self-consistent merger simulations of galaxies containing central SMBHs. We find hardening rates of the massive binaries that are indeed much higher than in spherical models and essentially independent of the number of particles used in the simulations. Binary eccentricities remain high throughout the simulations. Our results constitute a fully stellar-dynamical solution to the final parsec problem and imply a potentially high rate of events for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors like LISA. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Rafiq M.,Government College University Lahore |
Ameen K.,University of Punjab
Electronic Library | Year: 2014
Findings - Adoption of OSS in libraries is just at a beginning stage in Pakistan, and only a few organizations have so far made their first move in this direction. The major identified issues affecting OSS adoption in Pakistani libraries are: social (cultural) disparity, conceptual confusions, digital divide, lack of technological, financial, and human development.Practical implications - The paper will help decision makers plan OSS applications in their libraries.Originality/value - This is the first paper on the topic in Pakistan and explores the issues involved in OSS adoption in a comprehensive manner. The paper can provide understanding regarding adoption of OSS to professionals in Pakistani and other developing countries with similar environment.Design/methodology/approach - Literature review and principal author's first-hand experience of Koha (OSS) implementation in Provincial Assembly Libraries of Pakistan under Pakistan Legislative Strengthen Project of United States Agency for International Development provide the information and insight for this paper.Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss key issues related to the adoption of open source software (OSS) in Pakistani libraries. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Lupulescu V.,Constantin Brâncusi University |
Abbas U.,Government College University Lahore
Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making | Year: 2012
In this paper, we prove a local existence and uniqueness result for fuzzy delay differential equations driven by Liu process. We also establish continuous dependence of solution with respect to initial data. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Chaudhry Z.,Government College University Lahore |
Siddiqui S.,National University of Sciences and Technology
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes | Year: 2012
Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the HRQOL of paediatric cancer in comparison to the healthy children across age groups, using PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the PedsQL™ Cancer Module.Method: The PedsQLTM 4.0 Generic Core Scales and PedsQL Cancer Module 3.0 were administered on 56 children including 26 cancer patients and 30 healthy children while employing self and proxy report forms. Furthermore, the results were compared with their healthy comparison group.Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between HRQOL reports of cancer patients and their parents. However, the mean of paediatric cancer patients is significantly lower as compare to their healthy comparison group. The mean of proxy report is lower overall on both PedsQL and PedsQL cancer module reports.Conclusion: Conclusively, overall HRQOL of cancer patients was lower than healthy children but it is quite similar to their parents' perception. Whereas, the parental mean on PedsQL and PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module are significantly low. The study indicated a marked difference between cancer patients and healthy children's HRQOL perception and unfortunately in country like Pakistan where cancer is on increase, no significant work has yet been done to explore this area of research. The present study highlighted the need to focus on the particular psychological health services required to serve the physically challenged population. © 2012 Chaudhry and Siddiqui; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Lupulescu V.,Constantin Brâncusi University |
Lupulescu V.,Government College University Lahore
Information Sciences | Year: 2013
Using the concept of the generalized Hukuhara difference, in this paper we introduce and study the differentiability and the integrability for the interval-valued functions on time scales. Some illustrative examples to interval differential equations on time scales are presented. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khola G.,Government College University Lahore |
Ghazala B.,Government College University Lahore
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012
Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for biodiesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus algae would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative biodiesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of biodiesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of biodiesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards biodiesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of biodiesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for biodiesel production than the comparing species.
Ullah S.,Government College University Lahore
Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics | Year: 2013
In this paper, an open-loop control is applied to stabilize a two-level quantum particle by an external optical field. To achieve this goal, the speed gradient method is implemented. The efficiency of this method is shown by numerical experiments. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Ullah S.,Government College University Lahore
Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2015
This investigation deals with some exact analytical solutions of the incompressible second grade fluid by using the method based on the separation of variables. In many cases, this method can derive exact analytical solutions easier than other methods. A family of solutions is derived in this paper, which governs scientific and engineering experimentations. The derived solutions represent the flows having streamlines as a family of ellipses, parabolas, concentric circles, and rectangular hyperbolas. From practical point of view, these flows have applications in many manufacturing processes in industry. Some physical features of the derived solutions are also illustrated by their contour plots. Copyright © 2015 by ASME.
Khan A.U.,Government College University Lahore
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010
This paper provides a framework for the managers to devise means to protect, restore, and maintain the remaining bi-species groves for sustainable management of fragile arid land ecosystem. At the moment, there is no information available about the structural and functional ecology of these dwindling remnants. The selection criteria for the classification of the groves are based on understanding the positive association between the two species, Prosopis cineraria and Salvadora oleoides, in terms of spatial pattern and morphological features. It was achieved by highlighting the attributes of the benchmark grove and classification of other groves in reference to it. The results clearly show that positive association in the groves is due to differences in the growth strategies of the two species in terms of above- and belowground biomass allocation and architecture. Most of the groves are in various stages of degradation, and anthropogenic interferences are the major determinant linked with the declining status of the groves. These activities affect the complimentary attributes of the bi-species groves, thus disturbing the characteristic structural features which contributed to the stability of this fragile landscape. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.